Bruce Hocking
[back] Cell phone tower, tetra, mobile phone critics

Hocking B, Westerman R.Neurological effects of radiofrequency radiation. Occup Med (Lond). 2003 Mar;53(2):123-7. Review. PMID: 12637597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    BACKGROUND: The health effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and the adequacy of the safety standards are a subject of debate. One source of human data is case reports regarding peripheral neurological effects of RFR, mainly noxious sensations or dysaesthesiae. AIM: To investigate health effects, neurophysiological mechanisms and safety levels for RFR. METHODS: We conducted a literature search for case reports and case series associated with mobile phone technology as well as other RFR sources using specific search terms on PubMed. RESULTS: We identified 11 original articles detailing case reports or case series and matching the search criteria. Five of the identified papers were written by at least one of the authors (B.H. or R.W.). CONCLUSIONS: Cases have arisen after exposure to much of the radiofrequency range. In some cases, symptoms are transitory but lasting in others. After very high exposures, nerves may be grossly injured. After lower exposures, which may result in dysaesthesia, ordinary nerve conduction studies find no abnormality but current perception threshold studies have found abnormalities. Only a small proportion of similarly exposed people develop symptoms. The role of modulations needs clarification. Some of these observations are not consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that all health effects of RFR arise from thermal mechanisms.

Hocking B, Gordon I, Hatfield GE. Childhood leukaemia and TV towers revisited. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1999 Feb;23(1):104-5. No abstract available. PMID: 10083700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hocking B, Gordon I, Hatfield G. TV towers and childhood leukaemia (continued)Aust N Z J Public Health. 2000 Apr;24(2):216-7. No abstract available. PMID: 10790947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hocking B, Gordon I, Hatfield G, Grain H.Re: "Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain. I. Sutton Coldfield transmitter. II. All high power transmitters".Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Jan 1;147(1):90-1. No abstract available. PMID: 9440406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hocking B, Gordon IR, Grain HL, Hatfield GE. Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers.Med J Aust. 1996 Dec 2-16;165(11-12):601-5. Erratum in: Med J Aust 1997 Jan 20;166(2):80.  PMID: 8985435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an increased cancer incidence and mortality in populations exposed to radiofrequency radiations from TV towers. DESIGN: An ecological study comparing cancer incidence and mortality, 1972-1990, in nine municipalities, three of which surround the TV towers and six of which are further away from the towers. (TV radiofrequency radiation decreases with the square of the distance from the source.) Cancer incidence and mortality data were obtained from the then Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health. Data on frequency, power, and period of broadcasting for the three TV towers were obtained from the Commonwealth Department of Communications and the Arts. The calculated power density of the radiofrequency radiation in the exposed area ranged from 8.0 microW/cm2 near the towers to 0.2 microW/cm2 at a radius of 4km and 0.02 microW/cm2 at 12 km. SETTING: Northern Sydney, where three TV towers have been broadcasting since 1956. OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratios for leukaemia and brain tumour incidence and mortality, comparing the inner with the outer areas. RESULTS: For all ages, the rate ratio for total leukaemia incidence was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.40). Among children, the rate ratio for leukaemia incidence was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.07-2.34) and for mortality it was 2.32 (95% CI, 1.35-4.01). The rate ratio for childhood lymphatic leukaemia (the most common type) was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.00-2.41) for incidence and 2.74 (95% CI, 1.42-5.27) for mortality. Brain cancer incidence and mortality were not increased. CONCLUSION: We found an association between increased childhood leukaemia incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers.

"Hocking et al. shows statistically significantly increased incidence and mortality for total leukaemia, Lymphatic Leukaemia and other Leukaemia for the whole population."--[April 2000] Safe exposure levels by Dr. Neil Cherry  (In Word format)