Smallpox vaccination timeline
[Hard to tell the difference between Variolation and arm to arm vaccination, widely in use up to 1898 in UK, hence massive disease spread.]
1898 Arm-to-arm vaccination (vesicles from smallpox victim were
scratched into arms) was "discontinued".
1870 Calf lymph becomes generally available (Ref Wilson p 106)
1871 and still more stringent
1867 more stringently
1853 Vaccination was made compulsory by an Act of Parliament
1840 Variolation became illegal in Great Britain
1798 Jenner introduced "vaccination" (vacc=cow).
1746 Hospital for the reception of patients suffering from small-pox, and for propagating the same disease by inoculation, was established in London in the year 1746.
1754 " That after much controversy, the College of Physicians in London adopted inoculation in 1754, and "considered it highly beneficial to mankind.'
1721/22 Variolation introduced. Human vesicles were collected and then scratched into arms.
"That small-pox was kept constantly alive by means of inoculation, which for
a lengthened period of time continued to provide new centres of contagion;
and the mortality became very large, notwithstanding an improved mode of
" That in 1798 the belief in the utility of inoculation with small-pox was greatly lessened; at which time Dr. Jenner published his 'Observations on Cow-pox,' having vaccinated for the first time 14th May, 1796.
" That Dr. Jenner petitioned Parliament for a reward for his discovery in
1802, and affirmed his belief that 'the annihilation of the small-pox must
be the final result of the practice of vaccination.' In the same year the
House of Commons voted him. £10,000. But many eminent members of the faculty
thought the action of Parliament too precipitate.
"That in 1803 the Royal Jennerian Society was formed, and a belief was
cherished that small-pox was about to be exterminated.
1807 " That in 1807 the Royal College of Physicians reported that the security derived from vaccination, if not absolutely perfect, is as nearly so as perhaps can be expected from any human discovery.'
1807 "That in the same year the House of Commons, in Committee of Supply, voted an additional grant of £20,000 to Dr. Jenner; the motion of Mr. Shaw Lefevre to take more time to consider the Report of the College of Physicians being rejected, and the grant passed by 60 to 47.
1808-9 "That the National Vaccine Establishment was founded in 1808-9, and supported by an annual grant from the Public Purse, and the privilege of free post. The Reports issued annually from 1810 to 1860, vary considerably in the degree of confidence in which the suppression of small-pox is predicted.
1833 "That in 1833 a Committee of the House of Commons, appointed to enquire into the utility of the Vaccine Establishment, reported, that 'the Committee are led to believe that the prejudices against vaccination are greatly on the decrease throughout the country; and the authority of the Managing Board is not necessary to enable vaccination to withstand these prejudices.'
1840 " That in 1840, inoculation for small-pox was forbidden by Act of Parliament, and in that and the following year, Boards of Guardians were empowered to provide for the coat of vaccinating parishioners out of the poor rates.
1853 " That in 1853 an Act to extend and make compulsory the practice of
vaccination waa passed, notwithstanding the promise of the Government, that
enquiry should precede any further legislation on the subject; and the
energetic protest of a large number of intelligent members of the faculty.
1856 "That in 1856 the medical officer of the Privy Council, addressing members of the medical profession, and referring to objections to the course of legislation, urged during the previous Session of Parliament, thus wrote:-' The President of the Board of Health intends forthwith, on the meeting of Parliament, to move the House of Commons for a Select Committee on the entire subject, which Committee if appointed, would ho doubt receive whatever evidence can be adduced as to the hygienic value of vaccination, and as to the validity of any medical objections alleged against its. further encouragement by the State.'
1857 " That in 1857 a Bill was introduced by private Members to repeal the Act of 1853, but not passed.
" That measures to amend and extend the provisions of the Act of 1853 were
" That in 1863 the law enforcing vaccination was extended to Scotland and
For example (first rough cut ... more to come!):
1798: Smallpox vaccination introduced
1816-1826: First Cholera pandemic
1835: Quetlet's book devoted to establishing vital statistics (rates of
fertility, death, etc.)
1836: England registration of births, marriages, and deaths made compulsory
1829-1852: Second Cholera pandemic
1832: Second Cholera pandemic hits London and East Coast of North America
1842: Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great
Britain declared that unsanitary conditions and squalor accounted largely
for the poor health and truncated lifespans of the poor
1851-1861: Third Cholera pandemic
1847-1861: 2,589,843 Russians contract Cholera and over 1,000,000 die
1863-1875: Fourth Cholera pandemic
1833: England reduction of tax on soap
1844: England Metropolitan Health of Towns Association founded
1844: Working class bathhouses and laundry
1845: United States John H. Griscom reports in The Sanitary Condition of the
Laboring Population of New York proposed that hygiene and cleanliness was a
1846: Passage of the Public Baths and Wash-Houses Act
1848: First British Public Health Act - creation of the General Board of
1848: Britain Private Sewers Act
1850s and 1860s: British public health authorities regulate sewage
collection, water supply, environmental nuisances, and a remarkable list of
other relevant matters, such as physician licensing and child labor abuses
1853: Smallpox made compulsory in England
1853: General Board of Health's unpopularity causes its discontinuation
1855: John Snow presents a report to the House of Commons Select Committee:
cholera stating that the disease was water-borne
1860s: England bathhouses and laundry used
1860s and 1870s: United States public health authorities
1866: Austro-Prussian War
1866: Sanitary Act gave local authorities new powers to provide clean water
supplies and regulate tenements
1867: Vaccination Act increased the penalties for failure to vaccinate
1858-1875: Creation of London's main drainage commissioned by the
Metropolitan Board of Works
1870s: United States cities began establishing permanent health boards
1878: Pasteur "Germ Theory of Disease"
1884: Robert Koch isolates cholera bacillus
1890: United States 1.4% of the urban population has water works
1890 to 1915: Personal hygiene revolution
1892: Fifth Cholera pandemic
1899-1926: Sixth Cholera pandemic (barely affected western Europe)
1940s: Sulfa drugs and antibiotics affect mortality
1900: Autoclave and sterile gloves
1905: England: 6 million baths sold
1910: United States 25% of the urban population has water works
On your site http://www.whale.to/v/measles7.html
You have 1965 .... I thought it was 1963? Checking ...