Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)
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[2005] A Glimpse into the Scary World of Vaccine Adjuvants By Edda West

So what exactly is this new high potency adjuvant?  We're told by the press release that MPL (AS04),  is a "derivative of the lipid A molecule found in Gram-negative bacteria, is extracted from bacterial cell walls and is one of the most potent regulators of the immune response, used by the body to alert itself to bacterial infections."  Full name of the lipid is monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)
    This news should put everyone on high alert because guess what?  Lipids are oils/fatty acids and according to Matsumoto, MPL is identified in declassified documents as one of two squalene emulsions used in the Army's new "recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine (rPA)  which the FDA, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Defense fast-tracked into clinical trials in1998. The other squalene adjuvant they used was Chiron's MF59. [2005] A Glimpse into the Scary World of Vaccine Adjuvants By Edda West

GSK's proprietary adjuvant is called ASO4. It contains alum and MPL. MPL stands for monophosphoryl lipid A. The U.S. Army's proprietary (unlicensed) adjuvant developed prior to the first Gulf War for use in a second generation anthrax vaccine was called Tri-Mix or Triple Mix. Tri-Mix contained MPL (monophosphoryl lipid A) and squalene. After the war, Army scientists considered MPL to be too toxic, so they began working with Chiron Corporation of Emeryville, CA to develop an adjuvant that contained squalene and water only ... on the assumption that adjuvant toxicity with Tri-Mix was due to MPL. This assumption also proved incorrect. There are more than two dozen animal studies that generated data demonstrating squalene's ability to induce autoimmunity; and there is disputed evidence that nanodoses of squalene in anthrax vaccine sickened countless military personnel who received squalene-tainted vaccine during AVIP.
    Back to ASO4 and MPL. MPL was also a component of the Ribi Adjuvant System ( I haven't checked whether it still is). The Ribi Adjuvant System, or RAS, is a derivative of Tri-Mix, which is approved for use in animals only.
    As far as I know, there is no existing data showing whether MPL elicits an immune response specific to it. If MPL is immunogenic, it raises the possibility of a dangerous "cross reaction." The human body is full of lipids. Antibodies and immune cells responding to MPL might also respond to other lipids in the body, thus breaking tolerance for endogenous lipids (those native to the human body) and initiating autoimmunity. Secret adjuvant in new avian flu vaccine
 Gary Matsumoto