Allergy reactions to vaccine ingredients

Sensitization as defined by the Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary: n. Alteration of responsiveness of the body to the presence of foreign substances. In the development of an allergy, an individual becomes sensitized to a particular allergen and reaches a state of hypersensitivity. The phenomena of sensitization are due to the production of antibodies.

[2016 Oct] Severe childhood allergies to peanuts, eggs and dairy directly linked to 'trace' ingredients in common vaccines

 [Vaccinated children had more eczema, asthma hay fever and food allergy]
Bernsen RM, Nagelkerke NJ, Thijs C, van der Wouden JC. Reported pertussis infection and risk of atopy in 8- to 12-yr-old vaccinated and non-vaccinated children.
Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Pertussis infection has been suspected to be a potential causal factor in the development of atopic disease because of the effect of pertussis immunization on specific IgE antibodies. Although several studies found a positive association between pertussis infection and atopic disorders, this relationship has not yet been studied in a population stratified by vaccination status. To assess the association between pertussis infection and atopic disorders in pertussis-unvaccinated children and in pertussis-vaccinated children. Using data from a previously conducted study on the relationship between the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-(inactivated) poliomyelitis vaccination in the first year of life and atopic disorders, the study population of 1872 8-12 yr old was divided into children pertussis-unvaccinated and children pertussis-vaccinated in the first year of life. Within each group, the association between pertussis infection and atopic disorders (both as reported by the parents) was assessed. In the unvaccinated group, there were no significant associations between pertussis infection and atopic disorders. In the vaccinated group, all associations between pertussis infection and atopic disorders were positive, the associations with asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI(95%)): 1.36-3.70], hay fever (OR = 2.35, CI(95%): 1.46-3.77) and food allergy (OR = 2.68, CI(95%): 1.48-4.85) being significant. There was a positive association between pertussis infection and atopic disorders in the pertussis vaccinated group only. From the present study, it cannot be concluded whether this association is causal or due to reverse causation.

Aukrust L, et al.    Severe hypersensitivity or intolerance reactions to measles vaccine in six children. Clinical and immunological studies. Allergy. 1980 Oct;35(7):581-7. PMID: 7468944; UI: 81131462. 

Beck SA, et al.    Egg hypersensitivity and measles-mumps-rubella vaccine administration. Pediatrics. 1991 Nov;88(5):913-7. PMID: 1945631; UI: 92051058.     

Kelso JM, et al.   Anaphylaxis from yellow fever vaccine. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Apr;103(4):698-701. PMID: 10200022; UI: 99216472.

Kelso JM, et al (1993) Anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine mediated by IgE to gelatin. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993 Apr;91(4):867-72
Allergic reactions to measles, mumps, and bnrubella (MMR) vaccine are rare; some have been attributed to allergy to trace quantities of egg proteins. We report a 17-year-old female who had an anaphylactic reaction to MMR vaccine. A primary vaccination with MMR at age 15 months had been uneventful. She is not allergic to eggs; however, ear and throat pruritus and tongue swelling develop after she eats gelatin. MMR vaccine contains gelatin as a stabilizer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prick skin tests were positive to 1:10 wt/vol dilutions of MMR vaccine and gelatin but negative to egg. By immunoassay, her serum IgE antibodies were elevated to both MMR vaccine and gelatin, but not to isolated MMR antigens. IgE binding to the gelatin carrier could be inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by addition of not only MMR vaccine but also gelatin from a variety of animal sources. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of IgE antibodies to multiple gelatin components as well as to MMR vaccine components. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the patient has an anaphylactic sensitivity to gelatin, and that her anaphylaxis to MMR vaccine was caused by the gelatin component. This sensitivity may explain other cases of MMR anaphylaxis.

Businco L.    Measles, mumps, rubella immunization in egg-allergic children: a long-lasting debate. Ann Allergy. 1994 Jan;72(1):1-3. No abstract available.PMID: 8291742; UI: 94121309.

Christensen M, et al.   [MMR-vaccination of children allergic to eggs]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1999 Mar 1;161(9):1270-2. Danish. PMID: 10083824; UI: 99183393.
Fasano MB, et al.  Egg hypersensitivity and adverse reactions to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. J Pediatr. 1992 Jun;120(6):878-81. PMID: 1593346; UI: 92277197.
Greenberg MA, et al.   Safe administration of mumps-measles-rubella vaccine in egg-allergic children. J Pediatr. 1988 Sep;113(3):504-6. No abstract available.PMID: 3411397; UI: 88316533.
Kelso JM.   The gelatin story. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Feb;103(2 Pt 1):200-2. No abstract available.PMID: 9949308; UI: 99135984.
Nakayama T, et al.     A clinical analysis of gelatin allergy and determination of its causal relationship to the previous administration of gelatin-containing acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Feb;103(2 Pt 1):321-5. PMID: 9949325; UI: 99136001.

Rietschel RL, et al. Neomycin sensitivity and the MMR vaccine. JAMA. 1981 Feb 13;245(6):571. No abstract available.PMID: 7452881; UI: 81096863.
Sakaguchi M, et al.   Food allergy to gelatin in children with systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996 Dec;98(6 Pt 1):1058-61. PMID: 8977505; UI: 97132048.

Sakaguchi M, et al.  IgE-mediated systemic reactions to gelatin included in the varicella vaccine. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997 Feb;99(2):263-4. No abstract available.PMID: 9042057; UI: 97194619    
Sakaguchi M, et al.    Systemic immediate-type reactions to gelatin included in Japanese encephalitis vaccines. Vaccine. 1997 Feb;15(2):121-2. PMID: 9066026; UI: 97218589      
Takuji Kumagai Vaccine. Volume 18, Issue 15, 14-February-2000 pp. 1555-1561 Copyright (c) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd All rights reserved. Gelatin-containing diphtheria--tetanus--pertussis (DTP) vaccine causes sensitization to gelatin in the recipients a b Takao Ozaki a Makoto Kamada a Chiharu Igarashi a Kenji Yuri a Hidetsugu Furukawa a Koji Wagatuma c Shunzo Chiba d Masato Sato e Hiroyuki Kojima e Akiko Saito e Toyo Okui e Shoki Yano
Abstract Gelatin-specific T cell response was performed to determine whether a series of vaccinations with gelatin-containing DTP is a primary sensitization process in gelatin allergy. Thirty-seven recipients with gelatin-containing DTP who developed adverse reactions after vaccination and eight recipients of DTP without gelatin who also developed adverse reactions were studied. In addition, 10 subjects receiving gelatin-containing vaccine and 10 subjects inoculated with non-gelatin vaccine who did not show any adverse reactions were also investigated. All subjects inoculated with gelatin-containing DTP vaccine showed positive T cell responses against gelatin, however, occurrence of adverse reactions did not correlate with T cell responses. We conclude that DTP vaccine containing gelatin induces sensitization to gelatin in the recipients, but the mechanism of local reactions remains unknown.
Taniguchi K, et al.     Gelatin-induced T-cell activation in children with nonanaphylactic-type reactions to vaccines containing gelatin. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998 Dec;102(6 Pt 1):1028-32. PMID: 9847445; UI: 99094941.