Vaccines and Nervous System Changes:

Bondarev, VN et al, "The Changes of the Nervous System in Children After Vaccination", Pediatria, Jun 1969; 48:20-24.

Ehrengut W, "Central nervous sequelae of vaccinations," Lancet 1986 May 31;1(8492):1275-1276.

Provvidenza, G et al, [On a Case of Benign Acute Cerebellar Ataxia in Childhood], Arch Ital Sci Med Trop, 43:189-194, Apr 1962.

Katsilambros, L, "[The Phenomenom of Apathy in Man and Animals After the Injection of Viruses in Very High Doses. Clinical Data]", Rev Med Moyen Orient, 20:539-546, Nov - Dec 1963.

Elliot GA.    Unexpected natural death of iatrogenic origin. Forensic Sci. 1975 Feb;5(1):21-31. PMID: 1132859; UI: 75169249.     

Vaccine Citations Linking the Vaccine to the "prevented" Disease:

Nkowane, et al, "Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis, US 1973 through 1984, JAMA, 1987, Vol 257:1335-1340.

Green, C et al, "A Case of Hepatitis Related to Etretinate Therapy and Hepatitis B Vaccine", Dermatologica, 1991, 182(2):119-120.

Shasby, DM, et al, "Epidemic Measles in Highly Vaccinated Population", NEJM, Mar 1977, 296(11): 585-589.

Tesovic, G et al, "Aseptic Meningitis after Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine", Lancet, Jun 12, 1993, 341(8859):1541.

Johnson, RH, et al, "Nosocomial Vaccinia Infection", West J Med, Oct 1976, 125(4):266-270.

Malengreau, M, "Reappearance of Post-Vaccination Infection of Measles, Rubella, and Mumps. Should Adolescents be re-vaccinated?" Pedaitric, 1992;47(9):597-601 (25 ref)

Landrigan, PJ et al, "Measles in Previously Vaccinated Children in Illinois", Ill Med J, Arp 1974, 141:367-372.

Vaccine Failures Citations:

Hardy, GE, Jr, et al, "The Failure of a School Immunization Campaign to Terminate an Urban Epidemic of Measles," Amer J Epidem, Mar 1970; 91:286-293.

Cherry, JD, et al, "A Clinical and Serologic Study of 103 Children With Measles Vaccine Failure", J Pediatr, May 1973; 82:801-808.

Jilg, W, et al, "Inoculation Failure Following Hepatitis B Vaccination", Dtsch Med wochenschr, 1990 Oct 12; 115(41):1514-1548.

Plotkin, SA, "Failures of Protection by Measles Vaccine," J Pediatr, May 1973; 82:798-801.

Bolotovskii, V, et al, "Measles Incidence Among Children Properly Vaccinated Against This Infection", ZH Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol, 1974; 00(5):32-35.

Landrigan, PJ, et al, "Measles in Previously Vaccinated Children in Illinois", Ill Med J, Apr 1974; 141:367-372.

Strebel, P et al, "An Outbreak of Whooping Cough in a Highly Vaccinated Urban Community", J Trop Pediatr, Mar 1991, 37(2): 71-76.

Forrest, JM, et al, "Failure of Rubella Vaccination to Prevent Congenital Rubella,"Med J Aust, 1977 Jan 15; 1(3): 77.

Jilg, W, "Unsuccessful Vaccination against Hepatitis B", Dtsch Med Wochenschr, Nov 16, 1990, 115(46):1773.

Coles, FB, et al, "An Outbreak of Influenza A (H3N2) in a Well-Immunized Nursing home Population," J Am ger Sociologist, Jun 1992, 40(6):589-592.

Jilg, W, et al, "Inoculation Failure following Hepatitis B Vaccination," Dtsch Med Wochenschr, Oct 12, 1990, 115(41):1545-1548.

Hartmann, G et al, "Unsuccessful Inoculation against Hepatitis B," Dtsch Med Wochenschr, May 17, 1991, 116(20): 797.

Buddle, BM et al, "Contagious Ecthyma Virus-Vaccination Failures", Am J Vet Research, Feb 1984, 45(2):263-266.

Mathias, R G, "Whooping Cough In Spite of Immunization", Can J Pub Health, 1978 Mar/Apr; 69(2):130-132.

Osterholm, MT, et al, "Lack of Efficacy of Haemophilus b Polysacharide Vaccine in Minnesota", JAMA, 1988 Sept 9; 260(10:1423-1428.

Johnson, RH, et al, "Nosocomial Vaccinia Infection", West J Med, Oct 1976, 125(4):266-270.

Vaccines Causing Another Vaccinal Disease:

Pathel, JC, et al, "Tetanus Following Vaccination Against Small-pox", J Pediatr, Jul 1960; 27:251-263.

Favez, G, "Tuberculous Superinfection Following a Smallpox Re-Vaccination", Praxis, July 21, 1960; 49:698-699.

Quast, Ute, and Hennessen, "Vaccine-Induced Mumps-like Diseases", Intern Symp on Immunizations , Development Bio Stand, Vol 43, p 269-272.

Forrest, J M, et al, "Clinical Rubella Eleven months after Vaccination," Lancet, Aug 26, 1972, 2:399-400.

Dittman, S, "Atypical Measles after Vaccination", Beitr Hyg Epidemiol, 19891, 25:1-274 (939 ref)

Sen S, et al, "Poliomyelitis in Vaccinated Children", Indian Pediatr, May 1989, 26(5): 423-429.

Arya, SC, "Putative Failure of Recombinant DNA Hepatitis B Vaccines", Vaccine, Apr 1989, 7(2): 164-165.

Lawrence, R et al, "The Risk of Zoster after Varicella Vaccination in Children with Leukemia", NEJM, Mar 3, 1988, 318(9): 543-548.

Vaccines and Metabolism Citations:

Deutsch J, " [Temperature changes after triple-immunization in infant age]," Padiatr Grenzgeb 1976;15(1):3-6. [Article in German]

NA, "[Temperature changes after triple immunization in childhood]," Padiatr Grenzgeb 1976;15(1):7-10. [Article in German]

[Considering that the thyroid controls our Basal Metabolism, it would appear that vaccines altered (depressed) thryoid activity.]

Vaccines Altering Resistance to Disease:

Burmistrova AL, "[Change in the non-specific resistance of the body to influenza and acute respiratory diseases following immunization diphtheria-tetanus vaccine]," Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1976; (3):89-91. [Article in Russian]

Vaccinations and Abcesses:

Sterler, HC, et al, "Outbreaks of Group A Steptococcal Abcesses Following DTP Vaccination", Pediatrics, Feb 1985, 75(2):299-303.

DiPiramo, D, et al, "Abcess Formation at the Site of Inoculation of Calmette-Guerin Bacillus (BCG)," Riv Med Aeronaut Spaz, Jul-Dec 1981, 46(3-4):190-199.

Vaccinations and Shock:

Caileba, A et al, "Shock associated with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome following Injection of DT.TAB Vaccine, Prese Med, Sept 15, 1984, 13(3):1900.

Vaccines: The Weird, The Wild and The Hilarious Citations:

Sometimes there are articles published about the strangest facts related to vaccines that defies our imagination and ability to understand them. They were written seriously by well-meaning scientific persons, but their titles can be seen differently. Some are funny, some are sad and some are purely scientific folly. See if you can figure these out:

Pathel, JC, et al, "Tetanus Following Vaccination Against Small-pox", J Pediatr, Jul 1960; 27:251-263. [Now you need a tetanus vaccination!]

Bonifacio, A et al, "Traffic Accidents as an expression of "Iatrogenic damage", Minerva Med, Feb 24, 1971, 62:735-740. [But officer I was just vaccinated!]

Baker, J et al, "Accidental Vaccinia: Primary Inoculation of a Scrotum", Clin Pediatr (Phila), Apr 1972, 11:244-245. [Ooops, the needle slipped.]

Edwards, K, "Danger of Sunburn Following Vaccination", Papua New Guinea Med J, Dec 1977, 20(4):203. [Are vaccines phototoxic?]

Stroder, J, "Incorrect Therapy in Children", Folia Clin Int (Barc), Feb 1966, 16:82-90. [Agreed.]

Wehrle PF, "Injury associated with the use of vaccines," Clin Ther 1985;7(3):282-284. [Dah!]

Alberts ME, "When and where will it stop", Iowa Med 1986 Sep; 76(9):424. [When!]

Breiman RF, Zanca JA, "Of floors and ceilings--defining, assuring, and communicating vaccine safety", Am J Public Health 1997 Dec;87(12):1919-1920. [What is in between floors and ceilings?]

Stewart, AM, et al, "Aetiology of Childhood Leukaemia", Lancet, 16 Oct, 1965, 2:789-790.

Nelson, ST, "John Hutchinson On Vaccination Syphilis (Hutchinson, J)", Arch Derm, (Chic), May 1969, 99:529-535. [Vaccinations and STDs!]

Mather, C, "Cotton Mather Anguishes Over the Consequences of His Son’s Inoculation Against Smallpox", Pediatrics, May 1974; 53:756. [Is it for or against?]

Thoman M, "The Toxic Shot Syndrome", Vet Hum Toxicol, Apr 1986, 28(2):163-166. [Animals are not exempt from vaccination damage either!]

Johnson, RH, et al, "Nosocomial Vaccinia Infection", West J Med, Oct 1976, 125(4):266-270. [Nosocomial means a disease acquired in a doctor’s office or hospital.]

Heed, JR, "Human Immunization With Rabies Vaccine in Suckling Mice Brain," Salud Publica, May-Jun 1974, 16(3): 469-480. [Have you had your suckling mice brains today?]

Tesovic, G et al, "Aseptic Meningitis after Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine", Lancet, Jun 12, 1993, 341(8859):1541. [AM has same symptoms as poliomyelitis!]

Buddle, BM et al, "Contagious Ecthyma Virus-Vaccination Failures", Am J Vet Research, Feb 1984, 45(2):263-266.

Freter, R et al, "Oral Immunization And Production of Coproantibody in Human Volunteers", J Immunol, Dec 1963, 91:724-729. [Guess what copro- means .... Feces.]

NA, "Vaccination, For and Against", 1964, Belg T Geneesk, 20:125-130. [Is it for or against?]

Sahadevan, MG et al, "Post-vaccinal Myelitis", J Indian Med Ass, Feb 16, 1966, 46:205-206. [Did I mention myelitis?]

Castan, P et al, "Coma Revealing an acute Leukosis in a child, 15 days after an Oral Anti-poliomyelitis Vaccination," Acta Neurol Bekg, May 1965, 65:349-367. [Coma from vaccines!]

Stickl, H, et al, "Purulent [pus] meningitides Following Smallpox Vaccination. On the Problem of Post- Vaccinal Decrease of Resistance", Deutsch Med Wschr, Jul 22, 1966, 91:1307-1310. [Vaccines are the injection of viruses cultured from pus ... ]

Haas, R, et al, "Studies on the Occurrence of Viremia Following Oral Poliomyelitis Vaccination with Sabin Type I Strain LSC2ab", Deutsch Med Wschr, Mar 4, 1968, 91:385-389. [Vaccines contains viruses!]

Converse, J L, et al, "Control of Tissue Reactions in monkeys vaccinated with Viable Coccidioides immitis by prevaccination with killed Coccidioides immitis", J Bact, Sept 1965, 90:783-788.

Motelunas, LI et al, "The Potential Epidemiological Hazard of Parental Transmission of Epidemic Hepatitis as the Result of Vaccination," Zh Mikrobiol, Nov 1965, 42:105-108. [Hazard Plus!]

Krudusz, J, "Effect of Vaccinotherapy on the Sedimentation Rate and On the Hematocrit", Klin Oczna, 1967, 37:191-195. [ESR is indication of health!]

Pop, A, "Production of Laboratory Animals for the Production of Serums and Vaccines," Arch Roum Path Exp Mocrobiol, 1967, 23:423-430. [Animal research for vaccine production!]

Espmark, A, "The Composition of Vaccines With Reference to Potentially Injurious Allergens", Lakartidningen, Nov 3, 1965, 62:3662-3667. [Vaccines are Potentially Injurious Allergens!]

DeRenzi, S, et al, "Damage Caused by Vaccine Therapy and Serotherapy", Clin Ter, Sept 30, 1966, 38:497-500. [Damage Caused by Vaccines!]

Lewis, J, "Iatrogenic Malaria," New Zeal Med J, Feb 1970, 71:88-89. [Malaria caused by the doctor!]

Prakken, JR, "Syphilization", Nederl T Geneesk, Jun 13, 1970, 114:1019-1023. [Syphilis!]

Damert, C et al, "Hygenical and Bacteriological Inspection of the Execution of Vaccination," Z Gesamite Hyg, Jul 1974, 20(7):439-442. [Hygiene means clean ... vaccine hygiene = oxymoron!]

Na, "Sibling Accidentally Vaccinates other Following Inoculation", Can Med Assoc J, Aug 4, 1973, 109:237. [I hate it when they let siblings play with needles.]

Opitz, B et al, "Prevention of Iatrogenic Infections Following Vaccination", Dtsch Gesundheltsw, Jun 15, 1972, 27:1131-1136. [Disease caused by the doctor!]

Raff, MJ, "Progressive Vaccinia (Vaccinia Gangrenosum)", J Ky Med Assoc, Feb 1973, 71:92-95.

Hanissian, AS et al, "Vasculitis and Myositis Secondary to Rubella Vaccination", Arch Neurol, Mar 1973, 28:202-204. [Did I mention vasculitis and myositis?]

Cho, CT, et al, "Panencephalitis Following Measles Vaccination", JAMA, May 28, 1973, 224:1299. [The measles vaccination is given to prevent pancephalitis; panencephalitis is a demyelination disease, too.]

Rubin, R H, et al, "Adverse Reactions to Duck Embryo Rabies Vaccine. Range and Incidence," Ann Intern Med, May 1973, 78:643-649. [Adversion to duck embryos, yuck!]

Gunderman, JR, "Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Occurrence Following Combined Mumps-Rubella Vaccine", Am J Disorder Child, Jun 1973, 125:834-835. [GBS is paralysis!]

Hale, MS et al, "Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Associated With Rubella Immunization", Am J Phys Med, Aug 1973, 52:189-194. [Did I mention Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?]

Provost, A et al, "Inopportune Cattle Mucosal Diseases Associated With Rinderpest Vaccine", Bull Epizoot Afr, Dec 1972, 20:265-267. [Those ... inopportune infections.]

Budal, J, "Hazards of Prophylactic Vaccination," Orv Hetil, Sept 10, 1972, 113:2237-2240. [or "Prophylactic" Hazards!]

Levenbuk, IS, et al, "A Morphological Study of the Harmlessness of Live Dysentery Vaccines From Streptomycin Dependent Mutants of Sh. Flexnert", ZH Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol, Feb 1972, 49:18-22. [Listed under Vaccinations Adverse Reactions.]

Arnold, H, "Our Vaccination Service is Sick", Oeff Egsundheitswes, Feb 1974, 36:133-134. [Agree!]

Spless, H, "Sterility of Vaccination Guns", Dtsch Med Wochenschr, Jun 27, 1975, 100(26):1445-1446. [Make sure the gun is sterile, because what is inside it isn’t.]

Redey, B, "Self-Experiments with the Ingestion of Various Bacteria", Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung, 1974, 21(1-2):45-62. [Beyond the call of duty for some scientists.]

Webster, AC, "The Adverse Effect of Environment on the Response to Distemper Vaccination", Aust Vet J, Oct 1975, 51(10): 488-490. ["The terrain is everything" ... Pasteur’s famous last words.]

NA, "Vaccines Made From House-Dust Mites", Drug Ther Bull, Apr 23, 1976, 14(9):35-36. [Sic!]

Levaditi, JC et al, "Local Tolerance of Vaccines Adsorbed on Immuno-Stimulating Substances", Sem Hop Ther, Feb 1975, 51(2):117-118. [Tolerance and sensitization, not immunity and immunization.]

Miller, Ta, "The Possibilities for Application of the Canine Hookworm Vaccine Technology to the Prevention and Control of Hookworm Infection and Disease in Man", In: Nuclear Techniques in Helminthology Research, Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency, 1973. [That could be great to control human heart worms, too. We could also switch from going to medical doctors to vets.]

Borsche, A, "What are the Hazards of Vaccinations in Childhood?" ZFA, May 10, 1976, 52(13):666-674. [Hazards are Plenty!]

Starke, G, et al, "Requirements for the Control of a Dog Kidney Cell-adapted Live Mumps Virus Vaccine", J Biol Stand, Apr 1974, 2(2):143-150. [DKC = Dog Kidney Cells]

Garlick, P et al, "Stimulation of Protein Synthesis and Breakdown By Vaccination", Br Med J, Jul 26, 1980, 281(6235):263-265. [Does not sound like normal protein synthesis.]

Weissmann, G, "In Quest of Fleck: Science From the Holocaust", Hosp Pract, Oct 1980, 15(10):48-49.52, 54-55 passim. [Which Holocaust are they speaking of?]

Williams, Go, "Vaccines in Older Patients: Combating the Risk of Mortality", Geriatrics, Nov 1980, 35(11):55-57, 63-64. [Does not sound good for the elderly ... it is your time to go ... I mean go be vaccinated!]

Sun, M, "Compensation for Victims of Vaccines", np, Feb 27, 1981, 211(4485):906-908. [They call them victims, not patients.]

Hillary, IB, et al, "Persistence of antibody 10 years after Vaccination with Wistar RA 27/3 Strain of Live Attenuated Rubella Vaccine", Br Med J, Jun 28, 1980, 280(6231):1580-1581. [RA 27/3 is made from aborted fetus; means it was first used in 1970.]

Frerichs, GN et al, "Estimation of Residual Free Formaldehyde in Biological Products", J Biol Stand 1980; 8(2):139-144. [Take your choice to be embalmed now or later ... oh I forgot to tell you ... you don’t have a choice ... roll up your sleeve.] [Formaldehyde is a carcinogen., but that does not matter after you are dead. It just saves them a step.]

Ambs, E et al, "Tuberculous Abcess of the Upper Arm With Regional Lymphadenitis as a Consequence of Injection inTwo Siblings", Med Klin, July 7, 1967, 62:1050-1054. [It happened twice, what a coincidence! Must be genetic!]

Davis, LE, "Communicating Hydrocephalus in New born Hamsters and Cats Following Vaccinia Virus infection", J Neurosurg, Jun 1981, 54(6):767-772. [Hydrocephalus is similar to brain swelling or "water on the brain" and vaccinia virus is used in making vaccines.]

Simon, J et al, "A new Model of Multiple Sclerosis. Experimental Vaccinia Infection in the Monkey", Forschr Med, Nov 6, 1980, 98(41):1607-1611. [Links of vaccines to MS.]

Barrie, H, "Campaign of Terror", AM J Disorder Child, Sept 1983, 137(9):922-923. [Qui tu - Vaccination - Et Brutus?]

Stickl, H, "Discussion on the Most Favorable Age For Primary Smallpox Vaccination of Children", Monatsschr Kinderheilkd, Sept 1970, 118:541-544. [Answer - none!]

Daugaard, J, "Adverse Effects of Vaccination. The Liability of Physicians and The objective Liability," Nord Med, Jun 1972, 87:183-184. [Who is liable .... no one!]

Conteras Poza L, et al, "An Unusual Accident During Smallpox Vaccination: Intramuscular Injection of the Lymph Vaccine", Rev Sanid hig Publica (Madr) Oct 1971, 45:1017-1022. [I thought that vaccines were supposed to be given IM.]

Nosov, SD, et al, "Systematization of Reactions Developing After Prophylactic Vaccination", Pediatria, Feb 1972, 51:10-15. [If reactions can be systematized, they can be predicted.]

Remsey, "Iatrogenic [Doctor -caused] Disease Caused by Vaccination", Orv Hetil, Sept 1971, 112:2245.

Stickl, H, "Estimation of Vaccination Damage", Med Welt, Oct 14, 1972, 23:1495-1497. [Safety?]

Millichap JG, et al, "Etiology and treatment of infantile spasms: current concepts, including the role of DPT immunization," Acta Paediatr Jpn 1987 Feb; 29(1):54-60. [Did I mention Infantile Spasms?]

Mason, MM et al, "Toxicology and Carcinogenesis of Various Chemicals Used in the Preparation of Vaccines", np, Jun 1971, 4:185-204.[Vaccines are not "toxic" or "cancer" causing?]

Michiels, J, "Harmful Effects of Common Drugs on the Vital Apparatus. Agents of Immunity." Bull Sociologist Beige Ophtalmol, 1972, 160:467-483. [Listed under Vaccinations.]

Knudsen, Rc, et al, "Difference in the Protective Immunity of the tongue and feet [foot and mouth] of Guinea Pigs Vaccinated with Foot-and-Mouth [foot and mouth] Disease Virus Type A12 Following intradermolingual and Footpad [foot and mouth]Challenge", Vet Microbiol, May 1982, 7(2):97-107. [Some body put their foot in their mouth!]

Elliman, D, "Vaccination and Professional Confusion", Br Med J, Sept 15, 1990, 301(675):551. [Not just any confusion, but Professional Confusion.]

NA, "Risk Language Preferred By Mothers in Considering a Hypothetical New Vaccine For Their Children", 1991, np, [It is all in how you say it. Vaccines prevent disease and may cause death sometimes ... or vaccines may prevent disease and cause DEATH!]

Levine, MM, "Non-target Effects of Live Vaccines: Myth, Reality and Demagoguery," Development Biol Stand, 1995, 84:33-38.Vaccine Myths- for sure; Demagogue - false gods!]

Stickl, H, "No Negligence in Preventive Vaccinations", Fortschr Med, July 20, 1989, 107(21):14-15. [No negligence because they are supposed to do that ... have adverse reactions ... that is .]

Donaldson, AI, et al, "Transmission of Foot-and-mouth Disease by Vaccinated Cattle Following Natural Challenge", Research Vet Sci, Jan 1989, 46(1):9-14. [Does that mean that the vaccines di work, or that the cattle put their foot in their mouth? How do they decide what is a natural challenge after a cow is vaccinated with the same virus?]

Spier, RE, "Democratic Governments and Vaccines", Vaccine, Nov 1994, 12(15):1363. [Good, let’s take a vote on vaccinations - after every one is educated to their real adverse effects!]

Cichutek, K, Nucleic Acid Immunizations", Vaccine, Dec 1994, 12(16):1520-1525 (23 ref). [Gene therapy could make auto-immune diseases increase.]

Alexander, NJ, et al, "Contraceptive Vaccine Development", Reprod Fertil Development, 1994, 6(3):273-280. [Why would they make a contraceptive vaccine? Who would use such a disasterous concoction? Vaccines prevent .... children!]

Allen, JM, "Over-the-counter Sale of Drugs and Vaccines, J AM Vet Med Assoc, Feb 1, 1995, 206(3):286. [I’ll take two DPTs, one MMR, and one polio for the road; Oh and how about some Viagra, Prozac and Ritalin .]

Harte, PG et al, "Failure of Malaria Vaccine in Mice Born to Immune Mothers", Clin Exp Immunol, Sept 1982 49(3):509-516. [Of Mice and Mothers!]

Editorial, "Are We Vaccinating without Reason?", Lakartidningen, Nov 27, 1974, 71(48):4915. [Could be! What is reasonable to a three-year old?]

Na, "The Hen’s Egg versus the Horse’s Brain: ..." 1988, np, [Horse sense in making vaccines!]

Bonard, EC, "Is Vaccination Still Necessary?" , Rev Med Suisse Romande, Oct 1987, 107(10):781-782. [Good question? Who are they asking?]

Forrester, HL, et al, "Inefficacy of Pneumococcal vaccine in a High Risk Population," Am J Med, Sept 1987, 83(3): 425-430. [Ineffectiveness! We are all high risk ... at risk of getting a vaccine!]

What About AIDS Vaccines?

NA, "Protection for AIDS Vaccine Suits", NJMed, May 1989, 86(5):338. [Protection from lawsuits that is. Why would there be any lawsuits if the vaccine was safe and effective?]

NA, "AIDS Vaccines: Is Optimism Justified? Fortschr Med, Jul 20, 1989, 107(21):13. [Sounds a bit pessimistic!]

[Many researchers feel that it is literally impossible to make an AIDS vaccine, but they are still testing the experimental ones on real people ... human "guinea pigs".]

Any Missed Organs?


Perez Diaz R, et al, "[Post-vaccinal Pericarditis. Report of 2 Cases]", Rev Cuba Med, 1:49-54, Jul-Aug 1962.

Larbre, F et al, "Fatal Acute Myocarditis After Smallpox Vaccination", Pediatrie, Apr-May 1966, 21:345-350.


Chudwin, DS, et al, "Lung Involvement in Progressive Vaccinia", West J Med, May 1981, 134(5):446-448. [Did I mention lungs?]


Lilic, D, et al, "Liver Dysfunction and DNA Antibodies after Hepatitis B Vaccination", Lancet, Nov 5, 1994, 344(8932):1292-1293. [The hepatitis B vaccination is given to protect the liver from disease - hepatitis, right. DNA antibodies means very possible auto-immunity again from vaccinations.]


Vaccinations Don’t Work:

Gilchrist, A, "To Vaccinate is Not Always to Immunize", Med J Aust, May 6, 1991, 154(9):638. [Vaccination does not always mean (or =) immunization.]

Daniel, J C, "The Polio Paradox, One of the Two Polio Vaccines Has Been Largely Abandoned in the US; The other is the Leading Cause of the Disease", Science, April 1986, p 37-39.


. Eva Snead, MD, Some Call it AIDS ... I Call it Murder, 1992, Vol I/II, AUM Publications, San Antonio, TX

. Notes adapted from Vaccine Flyer from NVIC, Vienna, VA.

. Topa, P K, "Manufacture of Vaccine Lymph", The Ind Med Gaz, Mar 1951, vol 86,p 94-96.

Schneider H.     [Manifestation of diabetes after smallpox vaccination]. Kinderarztl Prax. 1975 Mar;43(3):101-7. German. No abstract available.PMID: 1195568; UI: 76073372.
Palmar I, et al.     [Encephalopathy after vaccination against smallpox with permanent sequel--diabetes insipidus]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 1972 May;29(5):242-4. Serbo-Croatian (Roman). No abstract available.PMID: 4402923; UI: 72233718.
Polster H.    [Diabetes insipidus after small pox vaccination]. Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena). 1966 Apr 1;60(7):429-32. German. No abstract available.PMID: 5983569; UI: 68017241.
Ivanus IA.     [On disorders of the nervous system after vaccination]. Voen Med Zh. 1968 Mar;3:67-8. Russian. No abstract available.PMID: 5702896; UI: 69082504.
Ono F.       Possible relation of small pox vaccination to multiple sclerosis-like disease. A personal note. Med Hypotheses. 1986 Jul;20(3):339-40. PMID: 3638479; UI: 86310423.    
Poch GF, et al.    [Antidiphtheria vaccination as a factor precipitating multiple sclerosis]. Prensa Med Argent. 1966 Jul 29;53(30):1639-41. Spanish. No abstract available.PMID: 5989091; UI: 68120593.      
Miller H, et al.     Multiple sclerosis and vaccination. Br Med J. 1967 Apr 22;2(546):210-3. No abstract available.PMID: 6023105; UI: 67134809.    
Hennessen W.  [Problems in influenza vaccination]. Med Welt. 1972 Oct 14;23(42):1488-90. German. No abstract available.PMID: 4636873; UI: 73049880.    
Schumm F.    [Letter: Neurologic complications following influenza vaccination]? Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1976 Apr 30;101(18):720-1. German. No abstract available.PMID: 177257; UI: 76164855.
Downs AM, et al.     Does influenza vaccination induce bullous pemphigoid? A report of four cases. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Feb;138(2):363. No abstract available.PMID: 9602897; UI: 98265607.
Schmutz JL, et al.   [Does influenza vaccination induce bullous pemphigoid]? Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1999 Oct;126(10):765. French. No abstract available.PMID: 10604026; UI: 20071693.
Bodokh I, et al.    [Reactivation of bullous pemphigoid after influenza vaccination]. Therapie. 1994 Mar-Apr;49(2):154. French. No abstract available.PMID: 7817351; UI: 95117082.
Ashton R.  Side effects of influenza vaccination. Br J Gen Pract. 1992 Feb;42(355):82-4. No abstract available.PMID: 1493021; UI: 93152242.      
Robinson T, et al.     Side effects of influenza vaccination. Br J Gen Pract. 1992 Nov;42(364):489-90. No abstract available.PMID: 1472400; UI: 93112469.  
Fournier B, et al.    Bullous pemphigoid induced by vaccination. Br J Dermatol. 1996 Jul;135(1):153-4. No abstract available.PMID: 8776390; UI: 96372575.    
Ehrengut W.     [Side effects of influenza vaccinations]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1979 Dec 28;104(52):1836. German. No abstract available.PMID: 520180; UI: 80091277.
Lear JT, et al. Bullous pemphigoid following influenza vaccination. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1996 Sep;21(5):392. No abstract available.PMID: 9136169; UI: 97281896.
Desson JF, et al.     [Acute benign pericarditis after anti-influenza vaccination]. Presse Med. 1997 Mar 22;26(9):415. French. No abstract available.PMID: 9137397; UI: 97283264.
Clinical suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by muramyl dipeptide "adjuvant".
Root-Bernstein RS; Yurochko F; Westall FC
Brain Res Bull, 17: 4, 1986 Oct, 473-6
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a model for several human diseases including multiple sclerosis and post-vaccinal encephalopathies. EAE is generally thought to be an autoimmune response to the antigen myelin basic protein (MBP). Oddly, MBP can also suppress EAE, and many observations suggest that an independent immune response to so-called "adjuvant" material is also necessary to EAE induction. Thus, EAE may be a result of a pair of interactive immune responses, one against MBP, and one against adjuvant. If so, the adjuvant should, like MBP, suppress EAE. We present data from experiments on strain 13 guinea pigs demonstrating EAE suppression by muramyl dipeptide, an active component of complete Freund's adjuvant. These results are striking because classically adjuvants are defined as immunopotentiators, not immunosuppressants. Our results, therefore, suggest that a revaluation of the role of adjuvants in inducing autoimmune diseases may be necessary.
Immunogenicity and safety of a live attenuated varicella vaccine in healthy Indian children aged 9-24 months.
Ramkissoon A; Coovadia HM; Jugnundan P; Haffejee IE; Meurice F; Vandevoorde D
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Natal, Durban.
S Afr Med J, 85: 12, 1995 Dec, 1295-8
OBJECTIVES. To investigate the safety of live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain) and the optimal virus titre/dose required for immunogenicity in healthy South African children. DESIGN. Double-blind randomised clinical study using two different lots of varicella vaccine, each at two different titres. Subjects were randomly allocated to groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 to receive vaccine containing a mean virus titre of 10(4,5), 10(3,1), 10(3,9) and 10(2,7) PFUs per dose respectively. Clinical signs and symptoms were followed up for 42 days post-vaccination. Specific varicella antibodies were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence method in sera obtained on day 0 and day 42. SETTING. City Health Clinic, Chatsworth, Durban. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 200 healthy 9-24-month-old children were vaccinated, of whom 189 (44,5%) completed the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Pre- and post-vaccination varicella antibody levels. Adverse events following varicella vaccination. RESULTS. The vaccine was safe and well tolerated. No local symptoms were reported. Skin reactions were specifically solicited in this study: 21 reactions were reported in 8.5% (17/200) of children. Vesicles were reported in 2 vaccines (< or = 10 vesicles in both cases). One serious adverse event was reported: hospitalisation for bronchopneumonia on day 16 post-vaccination which resolved without sequelae. Around day 42 post-vaccination (range 35-63 days) all the 176 initially seronegative subjects had seroconverted for varicella antibodies. Post-vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs) were 104.1, 66.2, 69.5 and 77.0 for groups 1-4 respectively. Six subjects who were initially seropositive maintained or increased their titres post-vaccination; 3 of the 6 showed a booster response (a > or = 4-fold increase from the pre-vaccination titre). CONCLUSIONS. Varicella vaccine was found to be safe, immunogenic and well tolerated. No difference in seroconversion rates or GMTs, either between groups receiving the two vaccine lots or between groups receiving the different titres of each lot, was shown


Title Attitudes of Victorian vaccine providers to pertussis vaccine Author MacIntyre CR; Nolan T Address National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Canberra, ACT. Source Med J Aust, 161: 5, 1994 Sep 5, 295-9 Abstract OBJECTIVES: To assess the attitudes of Victorian vaccine providers to the pertussis component of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP), and to examine differences between kinds of health professionals. Also, to assess vaccine providers' understanding of National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines on childhood immunisation with DTP. METHODS: We conducted a postal survey of 765 randomly selected Victorian health professionals involved in childhood vaccination, including medical officers of health (MOHs), general practitioners (GPs), maternal child health nurses (MCHNs), paediatricians and environmental health officers (EHOs). RESULTS: Most (83%) knew that the pertussis component was most frequently responsible for adverse effects of DTP. Thirty-four per cent of all respondents (9% MCHNs, 23% paediatricians, 24% MOHs, 34% EHOs and 39% GPs) believed that pertussis vaccine causes permanent brain damage, 34% did not, and 32% were unsure; 39% believed it causes encephalopathy. Only 9% described vaccination practices entirely in accordance with NHMRC guidelines. Up to 58% of respondents would give diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) in situations when DTP was indicated, and up to 54% would give DTP when it is clearly contraindicated. There was no correlation between knowledge of the safety of DTP and vaccination practices. CONCLUSION: Victorian vaccine providers have doubts about the safety of pertussis vaccine. There is a need to ensure the availability and clarity of immunisation guidelines for health workers, to educate them about the use of pertussis vaccine, and to ensure that this knowledge is put into practice.





Adverse reactions to the preschool (fifth) dose of adsorbed diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine in Canadian children.
Scheifele DW; Meekison W; Grace M; Barreto L; Carter AO; Mitchell L; Farley J
Vaccine Evaluation Center, British Columbia's Children's Hospital, Vancouver.
Can Med Assoc J, 145: 6, 1991 Sep 15, 641-7
OBJECTIVE: To quantify accurately the rate of adverse reactions after the preschool (fifth) dose of adsorbed diphtheria toxoid-pertussis vaccine-tetanus toxoid (DPT) vaccine and to test the hypothesis that large local reactions are attributable to the diphtheria toxoid. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Suburban community public health unit. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy children 4 to 5 years of age with a history of having received four doses of adsorbed DPT vaccine. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were given either the standard DPT vaccine (with 25 Lf units of diphtheria toxoid) or a modified DPT vaccine (with 10 Lf units of diphtheria toxoid). They were assessed 24 hours later by a nurse. Serum samples obtained before vaccination were tested for diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels by means of neutralization assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of large local reactions (an area of redness or swelling or both of 5 cm or greater) 24 hours after vaccination in the two groups. Relation between serum antitoxin levels before vaccination and the rate of large local reactions in each group. RESULTS: Of the 250 subjects enrolled 124 received the standard vaccine and 126 the modified one. Large local reactions occurred in 71% of the subjects receiving the standard vaccine and 52% of those receiving the modified one (p less than 0.01). In the former group large erythematous reactions occurred significantly more often in those with an elevated prevaccination diphtheria antitoxin level than in those without an elevated level; no relation was found between such reactions and the prevaccination tetanus antitoxin level. Reduced arm movement was evident in 45% of the children in the two groups. Few had systemic adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Large local reactions occur frequently after the preschool administration of the DPT vaccine. These reactions are uncomfortable but not serious. They result in part from the large amount of diphtheria toxoid in the standard DPT vaccine.
Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines other than pertussis and rubella. Summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine.
Stratton KR; Howe CJ; Johnston RB Jr
Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
JAMA, 271: 20, 1994 May 25, 1602-5
In September 1993, the Institute of Medicine released a report entitled Adverse Events Associated With Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. The report examined putative serious adverse consequences associated with administration of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids; measles, mumps, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines; oral polio vaccine and inactivated polio vaccine; hepatitis B vaccines; and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines. The committee spent 18 months reviewing all available scientific and medical data, from individual case reports (published and unpublished) to controlled clinical trials. The committee found that the evidence favored the rejection of a causal relation between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and encephalopathy, infantile spasms, and sudden infant death syndrome, and between conjugate Hib vaccines and susceptibility to Hib disease. The committee found that the evidence favored acceptance of a causal relation between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and Guillain-Barré syndrome and brachial neuritis, between measles vaccine and anaphylaxis, between oral polio vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome, and between unconjugated Hib vaccine and susceptibility to Hib disease. The committee found that the evidence established causality between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and anaphylaxis, between measles vaccine and death from measles vaccine-strain viral infection, between measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thrombocytopenia and anaphylaxis, between oral polio vaccine and poliomyelitis and death from polio vaccine-strain viral infection, and between hepatitis B vaccine and anaphylaxis. For five vaccine-related adverse events, there was no evidence identified. For the remaining 33 vaccine-related adverse events, the evidence was inadequate to accept or reject a causal relation.
Severe reactions associated with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine: detailed study of children with seizures, hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes, high fevers, and persistent crying [see comments]
Blumberg DA; Lewis K; Mink CM; Christenson PD; Chatfield P; Cherry JD
Dept of Pediatrics, UCLA School of Medicine 90024-1752.
Pediatrics, 91: 6, 1993 Jun, 1158-65
OBJECTIVE. The pathophysiology of severe reactions to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)vaccine is not well understood. Active pertussis toxin in DTP vaccine has been proposed to cause severe DTP vaccine reactions. Large doses of pertussis toxin cause hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia as well as leukocytosis with a predominant lymphocytosis in animal models. To learn more about the causes of and risk factors for severe DTP vaccine reactions, children experiencing severe DTP vaccine reactions were studied. DESIGN. Prospective, referral-based surveillance. SETTING. Los Angeles, CA. SUBJECTS. Children experiencing severe reactions within 48 hours of DTP immunization and evaluated within 24 hours of the reaction. Severe reactions included encephalopathy, persistent crying > or = 3 hours, hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes (collapse episodes), fever > or = 40.5 degrees C, or seizures. Some comparisons were made between children with DTP vaccine-associated seizures and a comparison group of children experiencing febrile seizures unrelated to immunization. OUTCOME MEASURES. A history and physical examination were performed. Follow-up examinations were performed 1 month later. Blood was collected for complete blood cell count with leukocyte differential count, serum chemistry measurements, and insulin and glucose values. Serum was assayed for active pertussis toxin, both in free and immune-complex masked states. RESULTS. Sixty children experienced severe reactions within 48 hours of DTP immunization: 32 children had seizures only, 14 subjects had hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes, 2 subjects had fever > or = 40.5 degrees C only, 4 subjects had persistent crying > or = 3 hours, 6 children had seizures and fever > or = 40.5 degrees C, and 2 children had persistent crying and seizures. The children with seizures had a high rate of personal and family histories of seizures, and 90% had documented fevers (> or = 38 degrees C). Persistent crying was associated with painful local reactions. Effects that may have been due to vaccine pertussis toxin were not found. Lymphocytosis did not occur, nor did hypoglycemia. Some relatively elevated insulin values were noted; however, this finding was also noted in the comparison group of children experiencing febrile seizures unrelated to immunization. No biologically active pertussis toxin was found in the acute sera of children experiencing severe DTP vaccine reactions. CONCLUSIONS. Seizures associated with DTP vaccine have similar clinical characteristics as febrile seizures, and persistent crying is initiated by painful local reactions. Vaccine endotoxin is a cause of febrile DTP vaccine reactions. We found no evidence that DTP vaccine pertussis toxin plays a role in severe DTP vaccine reactions.
[Neurologic complications after vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough]
Original Title
Neurologické komplikace po ockování proti záskrtu, tetanu a dávivému kasli.
Skovránková J; Komárek V; Domorázková E
Ustav sér a ockovacích látek, Praha.
Cesk Pediatr, 47: 2, 1992 Feb, 122-4
The authors analyze the character and prognosis of neurological complications after immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough (ADTP vaccine) in children free from neurological disease in the case-history (n = 91) and in children with neurological disease in the case-history (n = 9). In both groups the most frequent type of complications were encephalopathies and febrile attacks as a consequence of metabolic and toxic changes following vaccination. Persisting neurological disorders had in both investigated groups in the majority the character of epilepsy.
Adverse events following pertussis and rubella vaccines. Summary of a report of the Institute of Medicine.
Howson CP; Fineberg HV
Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20418.
JAMA, 267: 3, 1992 Jan 15, 392-6
In August 1991, the Institute of Medicine released a report entitled Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines, which examined 18 adverse events in relation to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and four adverse events in relation to the currently used rubella vaccine strain, RA 27/3. The committee spent 20 months reviewing a wide range of information sources, including case series and individual case reports, both published and unpublished, epidemiologic studies, studies in animals, and other laboratory studies. The committee found that the evidence indicates a causal relation between DTP vaccine and anaphylaxis and between the pertussis component of DTP vaccine and extended periods of inconsolable crying or screaming. The committee also reported that the evidence indicates a causal relation between the rubella vaccine and acute arthritis in adult women. The committee found the available evidence weaker but still consistent with a causal relation between DTP vaccine and two conditions--acute encephalopathy and hypotonic, hyporesponsive episodes--and between rubella vaccine and chronic arthritis in adult women. Estimated incidence rates of these adverse events following vaccination are provided, where possible. The committee found that the evidence does not indicate a causal relation between the DTP vaccine and infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, Reye's syndrome, and sudden infant death syndrome. The committee found insufficient evidence to indicate either the presence or absence of a causal relation between DTP vaccine and chronic neurologic damage, aseptic meningitis, erythema multiforme or other rash, Guillain-Barré syndrome, hemolytic anemia, juvenile diabetes, learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorder, peripheral mononeuropathy, or thrombocytopenia, and between rubella vaccine and radiculoneuritis and other neuropathies or thrombocytopenic purpura. The committee's evaluative methods are briefly described and a summary of research needs is provided.
[Physiopathology of pertussis encephalopathy. Prophylaxis. Pathogenesis of the "reaction" against intramuscular pertussis vaccine. Vaccination with "shield"]
Original Title
Fisiopatologia dell'encefalopatia pertussica. Profilassi. Patogenesi delle "reazioni" da vaccino antipertosse intramuscolo. Vaccinazione con "copertura".
Fiore D
Pediatr Med Chir, 13: 3, 1991 May-Jun, 265-6
The specific local and humoral immunological situation of the child, by permitting or not (+/- specific IgA-S) the passage of the Bordetella toxins to the bloodstream and the formation or not (+/- specific circulating IgG) of Circulating Immune Complexes (CIC), brings back to Type III Immunoreactions the pathogenesis of the pertussis encephalopathy and the reactions provoked by intramuscular vaccine. Since the antihistaminics and antiserotoninics can prevent the CIC precipitation, the Author believes that this would imply the indication to the usage of antihistaminics or antiserotoninics to prevent both the neurologic complications of the illness and the systemic reactions to the intramuscular vaccine.


Comparison of toxicities of acellular pertussis vaccine with whole cell pertussis vaccine in experimental animals.
Sato Y; Sato H
Department of Bacteriology, National Institute of Health, Tokyo, Japan.
Dev Biol Stand, 73:1991, 251-62
There is no suitable animal model for pertussis encephalopathy in humans. In this study, we have compared the toxicity of acellular pertussis vaccine with whole cell pertussis vaccine in mice or guinea pigs. Two lots of acellular and two lots of whole cell vaccine produced in different countries were assayed in the test. 1. There was no statistical difference in mouse protective potency between these acellular or whole cell pertussis vaccines. 2. There were no differences in chemical ingredients between acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccines except for protein nitrogen content. The protein nitrogen content of whole cell vaccine was at least three times higher than that of the acellular product. 3. Anti-PT antibody productivity of the acellular vaccine was higher than that of the whole cell vaccine. 4. Anti-agglutinogen antibody productivity of the whole cell vaccine was higher than that of the acellular vaccine. 5. There was no pyrogenic activity with the acellular vaccine, but high pyrogenicity was seen with whole cell vaccine. 6. There was high body-weight decreasing toxicity in mice and guinea pigs by the whole cell vaccine. 7. The mice died when they received whole cell pertussis vaccine iv, but no deaths occurred in the mice which received acellular pertussis vaccine.
Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine and serious neurologic illness: an updated review of the epidemiologic evidence.
Wentz KR; Marcuse EK
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle.
Pediatrics, 87: 3, 1991 Mar, 287-97
A widespread impression that DTP vaccine does cause brain damage has been based first on historical precedent--smallpox and rabies vaccines were recognized as sometimes causing devastating neurologic illness; analogy to pertussis--the disease can cause encephalopathy; and more recently on anecdotal evidence, particularly case series. A noncausal relationship--coincidence--could explain the temporal relation between DTP vaccine and neurologic illness, inasmuch as DTP vaccine is given at the age of emergence of idiopathic neurologic disease. The relationship between DTP vaccine and neurologic illness lacks specificity. Case series have had an impact on both physicians' and the lay public's impression of the safety of pertussis vaccine greatly out of proportion to their scientific importance. Case series can be useful for generating hypotheses but cannot provide evidence that pertussis vaccine is causally related to acute neurologic illness or brain damage. Observational studies using cohort and ecologic designs did not find an association between DTP vaccine and serious neurologic illness, but they were not powerful enough to detect an association as rare as that observed by the NCES investigators. The case-control design offers the best chance of providing causal evidence regarding DTP vaccine and serious neurologic illness. The NCES is the only published case-control study of this issue. This study found a rare association between DTP vaccine and some types of acute neurologic illness. Bias and chance are unlikely to account entirely for the association demonstrated by the NCES. However, the association has not yet been replicated by other case-control studies. The NCES does not demonstrate that DTP vaccine causes permanent brain damage.
The NCES reconsidered: summary of a 1989 workshop. National Childhood Encephalopathy Study.
Marcuse EK; Wentz KR
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle.
Vaccine, 8: 6, 1990 Dec, 531-5
A 1989 workshop provided a forum for independent review of the National Childhood Encephalopathy Study (NCES). No official summary will be published. Workshop panelists noted: firstly, that the magnitude of the reported association between acute neurological illness and pertussis vaccine might have been overestimated because of bias, but bias was believed unlikely to account for all of the excess risk; and secondly that because of problems with study design and methodology, the NCES is not informative with regard to long-term outcome of acute neurological illness associated with recent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination. The workshop panel discouraged use of the NCES estimate of the attributable risk of persistent neurological damage
Neurologic complications of immunizations.
Rutledge SL; Snead OC 3d
J Pediatr, 109: 6, 1986 Dec, 917-24
Although there does appear to be at least a temporal relationship between pertussis immunization and serious acute neurologic illness, data to suggest that children with stable preexisting neurologic disease or positive family history of neurologic disease are at increased risk for complications of pertussis immunizations are inconclusive. Furthermore, there are no firm statistical data concerning the incidence of pertussis vaccine-related encephalopathy. Rather, the literature on pertussis vaccine complications is replete with anecdotal reports and retrospective studies with a number of questionable conclusions drawn from this inadequate data base. Unfortunately, these conclusions have been sensationalized and exploited with litigious fervor to the point that the practice of pertussis immunization is being questioned in the United States. A number of points should be reiterated: pertussis is a dangerous and deadly disease, as seen in the epidemic in Great Britain; pertussis immunization is effective in protecting against the disease; and there is no conclusive proof that the incidence of complications from pertussis vaccination of children with seizure disorders or other preexisting stable neurologic abnormalities is higher, because appropriate studies have not been done to define such a risk. We would do well to keep these facts in mind in order to avoid a disaster similar to the pertussis epidemic in Great Britain. Pertussis vaccination should be given to all children except those with allergic hypersensitivity, a progressive neurologic disorder, or an adverse reaction to a previous pertussis dose.
Infantile spasms and pertussis immunisation.
Bellman MH; Ross EM; Miller DL
Lancet, 1: 8332, 1983 May 7, 1031-4
The possible roles of pertussis immunisation and of other factors in the aetiology of infantile spasms were investigated by analysis of 269 cases reported to the National Childhood Encephalopathy Study. In 34% of the cases an antecedent factor which may have caused infantile spasms was identified; the commonest of these were perinatal hypoxia (38 cases) and tuberous sclerosis (16 cases). Case-control analyses showed no significant association between infantile spasms and pertussis immunisation in the 28 days before onset. There was, however, some clustering of cases immunised with either diphtheria-tetanuspertussis or diphtheria-tetanus vaccines in the 7 days before onset. The excess compared with controls was compensated for by a corresponding deficit over the remaining period up to 28 days. It is suggested that these vaccines do not cause infantile spasms but may trigger their onset in those children in whom the disorder is destined to develop.
Immunization against whooping cough: a neuropathological review.
Corsellis JA; Janota I; Marshall AK
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol, 9: 4, 1983 Jul-Aug, 261-70
The neuropathological aspects of vaccination against pertussis have been analysed. This has been done partly by considering the previous literature and partly by searching for data on any child whose death since 1960 has been thought to have a possible relationship to the vaccination. Twenty-nine in due course were identified on whom a post-mortem examination had been made. Eighteen had died within 3 weeks of inoculation - the remaining eleven had survived the initial illness but had remained retarded, epileptic and disabled. Although a variety of cerebral abnormalities were found, neither those recorded in the present study nor those abstracted from previous case reports, have demonstrated a recurring pattern of inflammatory or other damage which could be accepted as a specific reaction to immunization against whooping cough. Those reactive changes that were occasionally found appear to be indistinguishable from those seen in many other infantile encephalopathies occurring as the result of a hypoxic/ischaemic state supervening on a complex of respiratory complications, fever and convulsions
Oral tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Whitacre CC; Gienapp IE; Meyer A; Cox KL; Javed N
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, 43210, USA.
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 778:1996 Feb 13, 217-27
In work performed by a number of laboratories, it has become quite clear that the oral administration of autoantigens exerts a profoundly suppressive effect on the development and long-term clinical course of autoimmune disease. Specific peptide sequences derived from the autoantigens are similarly suppressive. An interesting sidelight to emerge from specificity studies is that oral administration of a self-protein or peptide sequence (i.e., rat MBP peptide administered to a rat) is markedly less tolerogenic than oral administration of a non-self or even closely related sequence (guinea pig MBP peptide administered to a rat). The dose of oral antigen is now known to play a critical role in determination of the mechanism of oral tolerance, with low doses of antigen causing active suppression with concomitant release of TGFbeta1. Studies outlined here suggest that oral administration of higher antigen doses (e.g., 20 mg MBP to rats or mice) results in deletion of specific antigen-reactive T lymphocytes. This conclusion stems from the fact that injections of IL-2 could not reverse high-dose tolerance while reversing low-dose oral tolerance. Moreover, feeding MBP to MBP-TCR transgenic mice caused trafficking of transgenic cells to the intestine followed by a profound depletion of transgene-positive cells and reduction in proliferative function in all peripheral lymphoid organs. Oral tolerance has proven to be of therapeutic benefit in other animal models of autoimmune disease as well, including uveitis, collagen-induced arthritis, adjuvant arthritis, thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, and diabetes. Initial human trials in multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and uveitis show promising results.
Neurological complications of immunization.
Fenichel GM
Ann Neurol, 12: 2, 1982 Aug, 119-28
Vaccines prepared from whole, killed organisms (pertussis and possibly influenza) may cause neurological allergic reactions producing encephalopathy. These reactions are characterized by acute, monophasic demyelinative processes and occur with no greater frequency than 1 per 100,000 vaccine recipients; onset is within 4 days of immunization, and recovery is usually complete. No evidence suggests that these vaccines produce an insidious, progressive encephalopathy. Only with the swine influenza program of 1976 has Guillain-Barré syndrome appeared to follow immunization. Vaccines prepared from live-attenuated viruses (measles, mumps, rubella, and trivalent oral poliovirus) can cause symptomatic viral infection of the nervous system, including measles encephalitis, which occurs in 1 of 1,000,000 vaccine recipients; rubella neuritis, in less than 1 of 10,000 recipients; and paralytic poliomyelitis, in 1 of 3,000,000 vaccine recipients or their close contacts. A cause-and-effect relationship between immunization and brachial plexus neuritis, acute transverse myelitis, and cranial neuropathies has been suggested but never proved.
Murine model for pertussis vaccine encephalopathy: role of the major histocompatibility complex; antibody to albumin and to Bordetella pertussis and pertussis toxin.
Steinman L; Weiss A; Adelman N; Lim M; Oehlert J; Zuniga R; Hewlett E; Falkow S
Dev Biol Stand, 61:1985, 439-46
A mouse model for pertussis immunization encephalopathy has been described with features that closely resemble the severe adverse reactions occasionally seen after pertussis vaccine administration,m including seizures and a shock-like state leading to death. These reactions are produced with nearly one hundred percent efficiency provided that the mice immunized with Bordetella pertussis have 1) the appropriate major histocompatibility (H-2) genotype, 2) have been sensitized to bovine serum albumin (BSA), and 3) that the injected B. pertussis contained sufficient amounts of pertussis toxin. Antibody titres were measured in mice with haplotypes H-2d.s.k. that are highly susceptible to encephalopathy as well as in H-2b mice, that are totally resistant. Mice with H-2d.s.k. haplotypes were high responders to BSA, while H-2b (B10) mice were non-responders to BSA. Both H-2d and H-2b mice responded well to B. pertussis. Encephalopathy was induced in resistant H-2b mice with B. pertussis and passively administered anti-BSA antiserum, but not with B. pertussis and anti-(T,G)-A--L antibody. This indicated that B. pertussis and anti-BSA were absolutely required for development of encephalopathy. Encephalopathy could be induced in mice decomplemented with cobra venom factor and given BSA and B. pertussis. Several single-site mutants of B. pertussis affecting single virulence factors were induced with transposon Tn5. One of these mutants, BP357, deficient in pertussis toxin production, had a greatly reduced encephalopathic potential in the mouse model compared to the virulent strain BP 338, or to BP348, an adenylate cyclase and hemolysin double mutant, or to BP 349, a hemolysin mutant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The activity of purified Bordetella pertussis components in murine encephalopathy.
Redhead K; Robinson A; Ashworth LA; Melville-Smith M
Division of Bacteriology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Hampstead, London, UK.
J Biol Stand, 15: 4, 1987 Oct, 341-51
A Murine encephalopathic syndrome can be induced by the administration of BSA and whole-cell pertussis vaccine. The present paper reports studies of the capacity of purified individual pertussis components to induce this effect. Pertussis toxin and endotoxin together with a highly immunogenic sensitizer protein were required to induce the effect. The strength of the antibody response to the sensitizer appeared to be more important than the H-2 type of the recipient in determining the susceptibility of different mouse strains. The relevance of this syndrome to the study of possible vaccine-induced encephalopathy in man is uncertain and requires further investigation.


Pertussis immunisation and serious acute neurological illnesses in children [see comments]
Miller D; Madge N; Diamond J; Wadsworth J; Ross E
Academic Department of Public Health, St Mary's Hospital Medical School, University of London.
BMJ, 307: 6913, 1993 Nov 6, 1171-6
OBJECTIVE--To determine long term outcome in children who had a severe acute neurological illness in early childhood associated with pertussis immunisation. DESIGN--Follow up study of cases and matched controls. SETTING--Assessment of children at home and at school throughout Britain. SUBJECTS--Children recruited into the national childhood encephalopathy study in 1976-9 were followed up, with one of their two original matched controls, in 1986-9. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Performance in educational attainment tests; behaviour problems reported by teachers and parents; continuing convulsions; evidence of other neurological or physical dysfunction. RESULTS--Over 80% of cases and controls were traced. Case children were significantly more likely than controls to have died or to have some form of educational, behavioural, neurological, or physical dysfunction a decade after their illness. The prevalence of one or more of these adverse outcomes in case children who had been immunised with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine within seven days before onset of their original illness was similar to that in case children who had not been immunised recently. The relative risk for recent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation in children who had died or had any dysfunction in comparison with controls was 5.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 23.7). However, the number of cases associated with vaccine (12) was extremely small and statistically vulnerable, and other possible agents or predisposing factors could not be excluded. CONCLUSIONS--Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine may on rare occasions be associated with the development of severe acute neurological illnesses that can have serious sequelae. Some cases may occur by chance or have other causes. The role of pertussis vaccine as a prime or concomitant factor in the aetiology of these illnesses cannot be determined in any individual case. The balance of possible risk against known benefits from pertussis immunisation supports continued use of the vaccine.
Pertussis toxin is required for pertussis vaccine encephalopathy.
Steinman L; Weiss A; Adelman N; Lim M; Zuniga R; Oehlert J; Hewlett E; Falkow S
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 82: 24, 1985 Dec, 8733-6
A mouse model for encephalopathy induced by pertussis immunization has been described; it has features that closely resemble some of the severe reactions, including seizures and a shock-like state leading to death, occasionally seen after administration of Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine. Susceptibility to encephalopathy maps to genes of the major histocompatibility complex and correlates as well with the genetic regulation of the level of antibody response to bovine serum albumin. In this study we have investigated which bacterial determinant is responsible for the encephalopathy. Two lines of evidence implicate pertussis toxin as the active bacterial component. Single-site mutants of B. pertussis with single affected virulence factors were tested. A mutant that produces a defective pertussis toxin had greatly diminished capacity to induce encephalopathy, whereas a hemolysin- and adenylate-cyclase-deficient avirulent mutant had the same activity in the mouse model as a virulent strain. Purified pertussis toxin plus bovine serum albumin was tested and found to induce the lethal encephalopathy, demonstrating that the toxin was the critical constituent of B. pertussis responsible for encephalopathy.
Pertussis vaccine and whooping cough as risk factors in acute neurological illness and death in young children.
Miller D; Wadsworth J; Diamond J; Ross E
Dev Biol Stand, 61:1985, 389-94
The National Childhood Encephalopathy Study received reports on 1182 cases of serious acute neurological illnesses in children admitted to hospital in Britain. The frequency of risk factors in cases was compared with matched controls. A personal or family history of convulsions was found significantly more often in cases than in controls, but no such excess was found for a history of allergy. Case children were significantly more likely to have received diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) vaccine within seven days before onset and to have a history of whooping cough during the month of onset. The risk of serious acute brain conditions after the disease was more than six times that of three doses of DTP. In addition, there is evidence that deaths attributed to whooping cough may seriously underestimate the number associated with pertussis infection.


[Acute cerebellar ataxia and facial palsy after DPT immunization]
Katafuchi Y; Aida K; Shiotsuki Y; Yamashita Y; Horikawa M; Andou H
No To Hattatsu, 21: 5, 1989 Sep, 465-9
Since the initial report of Beyers & Moll (1948), numerous cases of seizures and encephalopathy after pertussis immunization or DPT immunization have been reported. However, acute cerebellar ataxia and/or facial palsy after DPT immunization is unusual, although there have been several reports from Japan. We report a 1-year-11-month-old girl with acute cerebellar ataxia and facial palsy after DPT immunization. On admission, she was alert. She was active and had a 6-day history of an ataxic gait and asymmetric facial movement which had begun 5 hours after DPT immunization. Neurological examination revealed an ataxic gait, horizontal nystagmus and right facial palsy. A CT scan showed low density on the right side of the pons with marked contrast enhancement. A MRI scan indicated the involvement of not only the right side of the pons, but also of the bilateral cerebellar peduncles. The child did well subsequently and was neurologically normal 20 days after the initial symptoms. To our knowledge, the present case is probably the first reported one of acute cerebellar ataxia after DPT immunization with CT and/or MRI correlation.
[Convulsions after whooping-cough vaccination]
Original Title
Zerebrale Krampfanfälle nach Pertussis-Impfung.
Tönz O; Bajc S
Schweiz Med Wochenschr, 110: 51, 1980 Dec 20, 1965-71
Convulsions or status epilepticus in 11 infants after pertussis vaccination are reported. In 3 cases grand mal epilepsy persisted and 2 children developed infantile epileptic encephalopathy (Lennox syndrome). On the basis of our own experience, the incidence of seizures approximates 1:4800 infants vaccinated or 1:12 800 vaccinations. According to a recent prospective study from the USA, the incidence of seizures may be closer to 1:600 infants. Since there is a significant difference between the incidence of spontaneous fits in children of the same age group and the incidence after vaccination, a causal relationship between the seizures and vaccination appears to be confirmed. The following conclusions are drawn from these observations: 1. In view of the usually benign course of whooping cough today, current vaccination against pertussis is hardly satisfactory. Improvement of the available vaccines is an urgent necessity. The protection should include the population most at risk, i.e. infants during the first few months of life. 2. Parents should be better informed about the risks involved in pertussis vaccination. 3. Booster inoculations should be abandoned. 4. Health authorities should decide whether the current pertussis vaccination program should be continued. 5. Complications following vaccination should be registered at a national centre.
Neurological complications following measles vaccination.
Allerdist H
Dev Biol Stand, 43:1979, 259-64
In Hamburg 18 cases of neurological complications following vaccination with live measles virus vaccine (including 2 cases of abortive encephalopathy) have been observed between 1971--1978. A causal connection was assumed in 14 cases, that means an incidence of 1 neurological complication per 2,500 vaccinees and an incidence of 1 abortive encephalopathy per 17,650 vaccinees. These results differ from studies of various countries which used the same vaccine strain (Schwarz). Clinical symptoms, age distribution and incubation period are demonstrated. The prognosis seems to be good; the risk of vaccination compared to the risk following original measles is between 1:10 (convulsions) and 1:18 (encephalopathy).
Murine responses to immunization with pertussis toxin and bovine serum albumin: I. Mortality observed after bovine albumin challenge is due to an anaphylactic reaction.
Wiedmeier SE; Chung HT; Cho BH; Kim UH; Daynes RA
Department of Pathology, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City 84132.
Pediatr Res, 22: 3, 1987 Sep, 262-7
It has been suggested that pertussis toxin (Ptx) is involved in the pathogenesis of the adverse neurologic reactions that can occur in infants and children after pertussis immunization. One group of investigators has recently reported that a clinical syndrome with pathological features very similar to post-pertussis vaccination encephalopathy can be induced in specific strains of mice after their immunization with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Ptx. The aim of this investigation was to further characterize the immunologic mechanisms operative in this murine model. Studies were undertaken to determine whether the role played by Ptx in this condition required the A-protomer of the toxin to enter a cell and ADP-ribosylate a nucleotide binding protein (a Class I activity) or was dependent upon the binding of the B-oligomer of the toxin to the surface of target cells (a Class II activity). The results of our experiments have established that the disease induced by coimmunizing mice with Ptx and BSA is due to an immediate type hypersensitivity reaction rather than an encephalopathy and that the mechanism of action of Ptx in this system seems to be dependent upon a Class II activity of the toxin and independent of its ADP-ribosyl transferase activity.
Pertussis toxin is required for pertussis vaccine encephalopathy.
Steinman L; Weiss A; Adelman N; Lim M; Zuniga R; Oehlert J; Hewlett E; Falkow S
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 82: 24, 1985 Dec, 8733-6
A mouse model for encephalopathy induced by pertussis immunization has been described; it has features that closely resemble some of the severe reactions, including seizures and a shock-like state leading to death, occasionally seen after administration of Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine. Susceptibility to encephalopathy maps to genes of the major histocompatibility complex and correlates as well with the genetic regulation of the level of antibody response to bovine serum albumin. In this study we have investigated which bacterial determinant is responsible for the encephalopathy. Two lines of evidence implicate pertussis toxin as the active bacterial component. Single-site mutants of B. pertussis with single affected virulence factors were tested. A mutant that produces a defective pertussis toxin had greatly diminished capacity to induce encephalopathy, whereas a hemolysin- and adenylate-cyclase-deficient avirulent mutant had the same activity in the mouse model as a virulent strain. Purified pertussis toxin plus bovine serum albumin was tested and found to induce the lethal encephalopathy, demonstrating that the toxin was the critical constituent of B. pertussis responsible for encephalopathy.
Acute encephalopathy and chronic neurological damage after pertussis vaccine.
Cowan LD; Griffin MR; Howson CP; Katz M; Johnston RB Jr; Shaywitz BA; Fineberg HV
Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Vaccine, 11: 14, 1993 Nov, 1371-9
In August 1991, the Institute of Medicine released a report entitled Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines, which examined, among others, the relation between immunization with whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and both acute encephalopathy and chronic neurological damage. The committee reviewed information from a wide range of both professional and lay sources and found that the evidence is consistent with a possible causal relation between DTP vaccine and acute encephalopathy, although it is insufficient to establish causality. The range of excess risk of acute encephalopathy following DTP immunization is consistent with that estimated from the National Childhood Encephalopathy Study: 0.0 to 10.5 cases per million immunizations. The committee concluded that the evidence is insufficient to indicate either the presence or absence of a causal relationship between DTP vaccine and permanent neurological damage. The evaluative methods used by the committee are briefly described and the evidence underlying its conclusions presented.
Kitsiou S, et al.   Sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral lymphocytes of children vaccinated against rubella and measles-mumps-rubella. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1988 Nov;77(6):879-84.
PMID: 3207023; UI: 89086050.
Sawada H, et al.     Transmission of Urabe mumps vaccine between siblings. Lancet. 1993 Aug 7;342(8867):371. No abstract available.PMID: 8101611; UI: 93329963.
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Pebody RG, et al.    Measles, measles vaccination, and Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease has not increased in Finland. BMJ. 1998 Jun 6;316(7146):1745-6. No abstract available.PMID: 9652932; UI: 98312536.
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Toraldo R, et al.   Effect of measles-mumps-rubella vaccination on polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions in children. Acta Paediatr. 1992 Nov;81(11):887-90. PMID: 1467611; UI: 93104631.
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Roberts GT.  MMR vaccination and autism. Lancet. 1999 Sep 11;354(9182):951. No abstract available.PMID: 10489979; UI: 99418511.
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Nagai K, et al.   Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with probable measles vaccine failure. Pediatr Neurol. 1999 May;20(5):399-402. PMID: 10371390; UI: 99297800.
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Toraldo R, et al.  Effect of measles-mumps-rubella vaccination on polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions in children. Acta Paediatr. 1992 Nov;81(11):887-90. PMID: 1467611; UI: 93104631.
Roberts GT.   MMR vaccination and autism. Lancet. 1999 Sep 11;354(9182):951. No abstract available.PMID: 10489979; UI: 99418511.
Carter H, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.
Lancet. 1986 Oct 11;2(8511):867. No abstract available.
PMID: 2876314; UI: 87013660.
Nagai K, et al. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with probable measles vaccine failure. Pediatr Neurol. 1999 May;20(5):399-402. PMID: 10371390; UI: 99297800.
Magdzik W.           [See Related Articles]
[Certain problems with limits of immunity against measles, mumps and rubella].
Przegl Epidemiol. 1993;47(1-2):47-53. Polish.
PMID: 8351387; UI: 93355057.
Ehrengut W, et al.           [See Related Articles]
[Complications after preventive mumps vaccination in West Germany].
Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1989 Jul;137(7):398-402. German.
PMID: 2571926; UI: 90014853
Peltola H, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Frequency of true adverse reactions to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial in twins.
Lancet. 1986 Apr 26;1(8487):939-42.
PMID: 2871241; UI: 86202170.
Brown EG, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Nucleotide sequence analysis of Urabe mumps vaccine strain that caused meningitis in vaccine recipients.
Vaccine. 1991 Nov;9(11):840-2.
PMID: 1759507; UI: 92101617.
Saito H, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Cloning and characterization of the genomic RNA sequence of the mumps virus strain associated with a high incidence of aseptic meningitis.
Microbiol Immunol. 1998;42(2):133-7.
PMID: 9572046; UI: 98233573.

Lindley KJ, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.
Lancet. 1998 Mar 21;351(9106):907-8; discussion 908-9. No abstract available.
PMID: 9525396; UI: 98184308.

PMID: 10489979; UI: 99418511.
Bhatt R.           [See Related Articles]
Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.
Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1357. No abstract available.
PMID: 9643820; UI: 98305973.
Richmond P, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.
Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1355-6; discussion 1356. No abstract available.
PMID: 9643817; UI: 98305970.
Bedford H, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.
Lancet. 1998 Mar 21;351(9106):907; discussion 908-9. No abstract available.
PMID: 9525395; UI: 98184307.
PMID: 9643816; UI: 98305969.
Chamot E, et al.           [See Related Articles]
[Estimation of the efficacy of three strains of mumps vaccines during an epidemic of mumps in the Geneva canton].
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 1998 Mar;46(2):100-7. French.
PMID: 9592852; UI: 98255210.
O'Brien SJ, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.
Lancet. 1998 Mar 21;351(9106):906-7; discussion 908-9. No abstract available.
PMID: 9525393; UI: 98184305.
Rouse A.           [See Related Articles]
Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.
Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1356. No abstract available.
PMID: 9643818; UI: 98305971.
Walker DR.           [See Related Articles]
Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.
Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1355; discussion 1356. No abstract available.
PMID: 9643815; UI: 98305968.
Peltola H, et al.           [See Related Articles]
No evidence for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year prospective study.
Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1327-8. No abstract available.
PMID: 9643797; UI: 98305950.
Bower H.           [See Related Articles]
New research demolishes link between MMR vaccine and autism.
BMJ. 1999 Jun 19;318(7199):1643. No abstract available.
PMID: 10373156; UI: 99301821.
Strohle A, et al.           [See Related Articles]
[Mumps epidemic in vaccinated children in West Switzerland].
Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1997 Jun 28;127(26):1124-33. German.
PMID: 9312835; UI: 97394881.
Kiln MR.           [See Related Articles]
Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.
Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1358. No abstract available.
PMID: 9643823; UI: 98305976.
Cohen BJ, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Infection with wild-type mumps virus in army recruits temporally associated with MMR vaccine.
Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Oct;123(2):251-5.
PMID: 10579444; UI: 20044045.

Saito H, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Isolation and characterization of mumps virus strains in a mumps outbreak with a high incidence of aseptic meningitis.
Microbiol Immunol. 1996;40(4):271-5.
PMID: 8709862; UI: 96336197
Brown EG, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Genetic studies on a mumps vaccine strain associated with meningitis.
Rev Med Virol. 1998 Jul;8(3):129-142.
[Record as supplied by publisher]
PMID: 10398501.
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Edees S, et al.           [See Related Articles]
A randomised single blind trial of a combined mumps measles rubella vaccine to evaluate serological response and reactions in the UK population.
Public Health. 1991 Mar;105(2):91-7.
PMID: 2068243; UI: 91297001.

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Kimura M, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Adverse events associated with MMR vaccines in Japan.
Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1996 Jun;38(3):205-11.
PMID: 8741307; UI: 96321371.

       [See Related Articles]
Ehrengut W.           [See Related Articles]
Mumps vaccine and meningitis.
Lancet. 1989 Sep 23;2(8665):751. No abstract available.
PMID: 2571005; UI: 89383765.
Ozaki K, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Evaluation of mumps antibodies after measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1987 Dec;12(5-6):305-11.
PMID: 3508655; UI: 89242704

Evaluation of mumps antibodies after measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines.


Ozaki K, Kuno-Sakai H, Kimura M

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan.

Mumps antibody titers before and after administration of MMR trivalent combined vaccines from 3 different company were evaluated by mumps IgG Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and by neutralizing antibody test (NT). Seroconversion rates determined with the ELISA were around 90% in all 3 different vaccines. The seroconversion by NT test ranged from 63% to 77%. The mumps ELISA is more sensitive method of determination of antibodies against mumps virus than NT. Since ELISA is a much simpler and easier method of determining antibodies than NT, it will be a method of choice in many clinical laboratories.

PMID: 3508655, UI: 89242704

Ehrengut W.           [See Related Articles]
Central nervous system sequelae of immunization against measles, mumps, rubella and poliomyelitis.
Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1990 Feb;32(1):8-11. No abstract available.
PMID: 2109492; UI: 90224612.
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Galazka A, et al.           [See Related Articles]
[Wide spread inflammation of the parotid glands (mumps): underestimated disease. I. Epidemiology of the mumps and its medical meaning in Poland].
Przegl Epidemiol. 1998;52(4):389-400. Polish.
PMID: 10321083; UI: 99254386.
Farrington P, et al.           [See Related Articles]
A new method for active surveillance of adverse events from diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis and measles/mumps/rubella vaccines.
Lancet. 1995 Mar 4;345(8949):567-9.
PMID: 7619183; UI: 95295433.
Walter EB, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Modified varicella-like syndrome in children previously vaccinated with live attenuated measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997 Jun;16(6):626-7. No abstract available.
PMID: 9194116; UI: 97337376.
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BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the program of immunization of children against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) in 1987, various outbreaks of mumps have occurred in Switzerland, with a significant proportion of cases in immunized children. Previous studies have suggested a possible lack of efficacy of the Rubini vaccine strain, which has been much used in this country. METHODS: Incidence study of secondary cases of mumps in the schools of Geneva, between March 18th and June 30th 1994. Study population: During the study period, mumps outbreaks have been observed in 10 school classes. After exclusion of the 10 primary cases, the study population comprised 195 children aged 4 to 12 years. RESULTS: Raw estimation of vaccine efficacy against mumps was 72.5%. Whereas both the Urabe and Jeryl-Lynn strains showed a significant efficacy, the Rubini strain didn't show any significant protective effect. After adjustment by Poisson regressions for the confounding effect of age, efficacy rates and 95% confidence limits were 75.8% (35.6%, 90.9%) for Urabe; 64.7% (10.6%, 86.0%) for Jeryl-Lynn; and 12.4% (-102%, 62.1%) fur Rubini. CONCLUSION: This study didn't show any protective effect of the Rubini vaccine strain. Furthermore, it demonstrated a statistically significant protective effect of the Urabe and Jeryl-Lynn strains, compared to the Rubini strains. In this conditions the use of the Rubini strain should be restricted to situations of confirmed contra-indications to the other vaccinal strains, as long as its protective efficacy is not clearly demonstrated.

PMID: 9027138, UI: 97161702

Fahlgren K.           [See Related Articles]
Two doses of MMR vaccine--sufficient to eradicate measles, mumps and rubella?
Scand J Soc Med. 1988;16(3):129-35. Review.
PMID: 3057621; UI: 89058578.
Sakaguchi M, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Reactivity of the immunoglobulin E in bovine gelatin-sensitive children to gelatins from various animals.
Immunology. 1999 Feb;96(2):286-90.
PMID: 10233707; UI: 99250304.
Miller E, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Antibodies to measles, mumps and rubella in UK children 4 years after vaccination with different MMR vaccines.
Vaccine. 1995 Jun;13(9):799-802.
PMID: 7483800; UI: 96066226.
Sakaguchi M, et al.           [See Related Articles]
IgE reactivity to alpha1 and alpha2 chains of bovine type 1 collagen in children with bovine gelatin allergy.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Sep;104(3 Pt 1):695-9.
PMID: 10482848; UI: 99414175.
PMID: 8032239; UI: 94305379.
Johnson CE, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Antibody persistence after primary measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and response to a second dose given at four to six vs. eleven to thirteen years.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Aug;15(8):687-92.
PMID: 8858673; UI: 97011681.
Miyazawa H, et al.           [See Related Articles]
Specific IgG to gelatin in children with systemic immediate- and nonimmediate-type reactions to measles, mumps and rubella vaccines.
Vaccine. 1999 Apr 23;17(17):2176-80.
PMID: 10367951; UI: 99294417.
PMID: 8977505; UI: 97132048.
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Saijo M, et al.           [See Related Articles]
[Central nervous system infection caused by mumps virus].
Nippon Rinsho. 1997 Apr;55(4):870-5. Review. Japanese.
PMID: 9103886; UI: 97257339.