Allergies & vaccine citations
Allergies  Citations

Anna L. Bruckner*, William L. Weston*, and Joseph G. Morelli*.  ELECTRONIC ARTICLE: Does Sensitization to Contact Allergens Begin in Infancy? PEDIATRICS Vol. 105 No. 1 January 2000, p. e3  From the Departments of * Pediatrics and Dermatology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado.
Objective.  Because previous studies have found allergic contact sensitization common in children by 5 years of age, our aim was to determine the prevalence of positive epicutaneous test results in children <5 years of age and to determine whether sensitization to contact allergens was as common in infancy.
Methods.  We recruited 95 asymptomatic children 6 months to 5 years of age from well-child visits at Denver area pediatric practices for epicutaneous patch testing using the T.R.U.E. Test system. Allergens were placed on the skin for 48 hours, and at a later follow-up visit, positive reactions were evaluated.
Results.  A total of 85 patients completed the study. Of these, 20 (24.5%) had 1 or more positive reactions to the tested allergens. Positive reactors ranged from 6 to 65.5 months of age, with an average of 30.4 months of age. Of the children, 16 reacted to 1 allergen, and 4 reacted to 2. Eleven positive reactions were observed to nickel, followed by 8 to thimerosal. Other positive reactions were to neomycin, cobalt, and kathon CG.
Conclusions.  Children as young as 6 months of age may be sensitized to contact allergens. Within this pediatric population, the prevalence of sensitization is 24.5%. Sensitization to contact allergens may occur in infants. 

Bernard, JG, et al, "Vaccination Complications and Cutaneous Allergic Reactions in Young Adults", Rey Corps Sante Armees, Feb 1962; 3:35-46.

Bierman CW, et al. Safety of influenza vaccination in allergic children. J Infect Dis. 1977 Dec;136 Suppl:S652-5. PMID: 564376; UI: 78110305.[See Related Articles]

Bawa YS, Wahi PL, "Allergic Encephalomyelitis after Vaccination and Serum Therapy: Report of Ten Cases", Indian J Med Sci, Apr 1961;15:290-297.

Ehrengut, W, "Vaccinal Allergy, Systemic Vaccinia and Ulcerous Vaccinia", Presse Med, July 4, 1964, 72:1957-1958.Erdmann, G, "Vaccination Allergy", Muenchen Med Wachr, Jun 16, 1961; 103:1217-1219 & 103:1256-1259.

Fries, J H, Coleman, M, "Anaphylactoid Allergic Reaction to Influenza and Poliomyelitis Vaccines", Ann Allerg, Oct 1960; 18:1130-1137.

Bernard, JG, et al, "Vaccination Complications and Cutaneous Allergic Reactions in Young Adults", Rey Corps Sante Armees, Feb 1962; 3:35-46.

D’iakova, R M, "Allergic Reaction in Children", Pediat Akush Ginek, Jan-Feb 1966, 1:20-21. [Listed under Vaccines.]

Erdmann, G, "Vaccination Allergy", Muenchen Med Wachr, Jun 16, 1961; 103:1217-1219 & 103:1256-1259.

Fedotova, AM, "The Pathogenesis of Manifestations of Non-specific Allergy During Vaccination, Pediatria, Jan 1967; 46:56-60.

Isacson, P et al, "Allergic Reactions Associated with Viral Vaccines", Prog Med Virol, 1971, 13:239-270.

Kelso JM, et al (1993) Anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine mediated by IgE to gelatin. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993 Apr;91(4):867-72
Allergic reactions to measles, mumps, and bnrubella (MMR) vaccine are rare; some have been attributed to allergy to trace quantities of egg proteins. We report a 17-year-old female who had an anaphylactic reaction to MMR vaccine. A primary vaccination with MMR at age 15 months had been uneventful. She is not allergic to eggs; however, ear and throat pruritus and tongue swelling develop after she eats gelatin. MMR vaccine contains gelatin as a stabilizer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prick skin tests were positive to 1:10 wt/vol dilutions of MMR vaccine and gelatin but negative to egg. By immunoassay, her serum IgE antibodies were elevated to both MMR vaccine and gelatin, but not to isolated MMR antigens. IgE binding to the gelatin carrier could be inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by addition of not only MMR vaccine but also gelatin from a variety of animal sources. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of IgE antibodies to multiple gelatin components as well as to MMR vaccine components. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the patient has an anaphylactic sensitivity to gelatin, and that her anaphylaxis to MMR vaccine was caused by the gelatin component. This sensitivity may explain other cases of MMR anaphylaxis.

Kreinin, LS, et al, "On the Problem of the Allergizing Effect on the Respiratory Organs of Aerosol Vaccination and Revaccination against Typhoid and Tetanus", Zh Mikrobiol, Aug 1968, 45:130-132.

Kwittken PL, et al.    MMR vaccine and neomycin allergy. Am J Dis Child. 1993 Feb;147(2):128-9. No abstract available.PMID: 8427228; UI: 93151210.
Kalet A, et al.       Allergic reactions to MMR vaccine. Pediatrics. 1992 Jan;89(1):168-9. No abstract available.PMID: 1728009; UI: 92093480.

Kantchourine, AK, et al, "Role of Delayed Allergic Reactions in the Pathogenesis of Post-Vaccinal Typhoid Complications", Rev Franc Allerg, Jan-Mar 1969, 9:19-24.

Mazurin, A V, et al, "Severe Allergic Reaction with Hemorrhagic Syndrome Following the Administration of DPT Vaccine", Vop Okhr Materin Dets, Mar 1964, 9:87-89.

Nazareth, B,et al, "Systemic Allergic Reactions to Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines", Vaccine, May 1994, 12 (7):666.

Rietschel RL, et al. Neomycin sensitivity and the MMR vaccine. JAMA. 1981 Feb 13;245(6):571. No abstract available.PMID: 7452881; UI: 81096863.

Smith, RE, "Allergic Reactions to Immunization Materials In Children and Approach to Diagnosis", Ann Allerg, Dec 1965; 23:600-603.Weisse, ME, et al, "Tetanus Toxoid Allergy", JAMA, Nov 14, 1990, 264 (18):2448.

Vorob'ev AA, et al.   [A]    [Study of allergic reactions in the body after experimental smallpox vaccination]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1977 Sep;(9):27-33. Russian. PMID: 596021; UI: 78077176. 

Weisse, ME, et al, "Tetanus Toxoid Allergy", JAMA, Nov 14, 1990, 264 (18):2448.