[back] Books concerning smallpox vaccination




1920 Published by Chas M. Higgins, Brooklyn.

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Prelude:—Forewords for Medical Freedom and Keynotes of American Rights and Liberties in  Medical Matters
Horrors of Vaccination Exposed and Illustrated
Petition to the President, Commander-in-chief of Army and Navy, to abolish Compulsory Vaccination and pardon all men condemned by court martial for refusing vaccination
Death of George Washington from Medical Malpractice in 1799 a warning against Modern Malpractice
Compulsory Vaccination greatest malpractice of to-day, kills many persons
Vaccination most dangerous and repulsive remedy ever devised, is a form of blood poisoning with an inflicted disease and is often more deadly than natural disease
Compulsory Disease As A Condition For Public Schooling Or For Service In Army And Navy Is Medically Barbarous And Legally Unconstitutional, And Should Be Abolished
Abolish All Compulsory Vaccination  In Army And Navy And Appoint Doctors Of Various Schools On All Medical And Health Boards
Cruel And Unusual, Excessive And Unreasonable Punishments Are Unconstitutional. Moral And Medical Monstrosity Of Long Terms Of Imprisonment For Refusing Vaccination
Harsh Military Punishments Condemned By American Bar Association
Military Obedience To Bad Law.   The High Example Of Socrates Commended
Voice Of The Commander-In-Chief To Our Soldiers, "You Have Commanders, But You Have No Masters." Rights And Dignities Of Soldiers Asserted. Mili­tary And Medical Despotism Condemned
Compulsory Vaccination Not Necessary And Not Effective For The Health Of Armies Or Populations. Failure Of Vaccination In U. S. Army Officially Admitted
Medical And Other Authorities Admit Dangers Of Vaccination And Condemn Compulsion
Deaths From Vaccination Greater Than Deaths From Smallpox. Shocking Denial And Concealment Of Vaccination Deaths By Our Departments Of Health And Vital Statistics
Great Epidemics Of Deadly Disease, In Animals And Mankind, Caused By Vaccination
Vaccination Both A Theoretical And A Proved Cause Of Epidemics
Grave Nature Of Recent Epidemic Of Influenza And Pneumonia, And Possible Relation Of Vaccination Thereto
Epidemics Actually Caused By Vaccination
Vaccine Factories A Possible And Proved Source Of Epidemics And Should Be Investigated By Congress And The Government
Epidemics And High Death Rates In The Army Probably Caused By Wholesale And Repeated Vaccinations. Death Rate Of Army From Disease Much Greater Than That Of Civil Population
Wonderful Work Of The War And Navy Departments Gratefully Acknowledged
Compulsory Vaccination Condemned As Un-American
The Declaration Of Independence, Our Basic Charter Of American Rights, Condemns All Violations Of Inherent Natural Rights
The Code And Basis Of Americanism
The Five Articles Of The Declaration Of Rights, July 4, 1776
The Golden Rule And The Declaration Of Rights Compared
Unalienable Rights Analyzed And Defined
All Power Comes From The People To The Government-Not Vice Versa
Medical Freedom An Unalienable Right
Compulsory Vaccination Condemned By Our Courts As Unconstitutional
The Supreme Court Of The United States On The Preeminent Rights Of The Individual
Decision Of U. S. Supreme Court Further Analyzed
Unalienable Rights Of The Individual Versus Rights Of Majorities.    False Idea Of The Suprem­acy Of Majorities Scored
Medical Freedom  And  Alimentary  Freedom Are Equally Unalienable Rights Of The People And Necessary For Human Life, Liberty And Happiness
Medical Despotism Worse Than Religious Despotism. The Old Religious Heresy, "Let Us Sin That Grace May Abound," Compared With The Modern Vaccination Fanaticism, "Let Us Force And Spread Disease Upon The People So That Health May Abound!"
Awful Record Of Japan In Vaccination And Smallpox And In Epidemic Disease Caused By Vaccine Virus, As Given In U. S. Government Reports
Japanese Virus Causes Epidemics Of Cattle Plague In Mankind And Animals
Medical Freedom Necessary For Medical Progress, Medical Truth And Human Safety
Medical Domination And Compulsion Most Dangerous Power In Body Politic And Must Be Suppressed
The Gigantic Medical And Vaccine Interest Supporting Compulsory Vaccination A Menace To Public Right And Safety Which Should Be Curbed
Reformed System Long Used In England
Proposed National Board Of Public Health, Controlled By One School Of Doctors, Condemned
Medical Ethics Of The Vaccine And Other Schools Compared And Criticized.   The "Beam" Versus The "Mote"
Propagation And Infliction Of Disease A Medical Crime
Removal Of The Great Ethical Disgrace Of The Medical Profession
Life Sketch Of John Pitcairn
Pictorial Supplement Exposing And Illustrating Horrors Of Vaccination
Pictorial Supplement
Horrors Of Vaccination  Exposed And Illustrated
How Vaccine Virus Is Made And How Cattle And Mankind Are Diseased And Killed By It
Fig 1 How cattle are diseased and tortured and Vaccine Virus produced.
What Vaccination Really Is And How Pus Infection, Lockjaw, And Other Diseases Work Together In Vaccination With Fatal Effects
Fig 2, Fig 3, Fig 4Fig 5,  Fig 6,
Diseases Found In Or Caused By Vaccine Virus
Fig 7, Fig 8, Fig 8 1/2, Fig 9
The Vaccine  Holocaust. Wholesale   Infection,   Slaughter   And   Sacrifice   Of   Cattle   Caused   By Vaccination
Fig 10
Official Reports Proving Vaccination To Be The Cause Of Foot And Mouth Disease
Copy Of Statement Given To The Press By The Bureau Of Animal Industry, U. S. Department Of Agriculture, Released For Publication, May 17, 1909 "Origin Of The Recent Outbreak Of Foot And Mouth Disease
An Official Doubt Disproved
A Big Price To Pay For Vaccination
Epidemics Of Smallpox Probably Caused By Vaccination And Foot And Mouth Disease
Cattle Epidemics Common In Vaccinated Countries
How Lockjaw Is Caused By Vaccination And How This Truth Is Denied And Concealed By Vaccinators
Lockjaw May Be Caused By Vaccination Whether The Germs Are In The Virus Or Not
"Assassination Of The Blood" Must Be Stopped
Vaccination And Lockjaw More "Risky" And Deadly Than Smallpox
The Horror Of Horrors, Cattle Plague Or Foot And Mouth Disease, Caused In Mankind By Vaccination.   Medical Ignorance On This Point Scored
Fig 11, Fig 12
The Awful Case Of A Vaccinated School Boy Infected With Foot And Mouth Disease, Or Virulent Cowpox, And In Eruption For Three Years!
Another Bad Case Of Virulent Cowpox From U. S. Naval Records
A Recent English Case Of Cattle Pox In A Baby And Its Mother, Caused By Vaccination. Identity Of Vaccinal Diseases Proved. A Most Significant Medical Fact Disclosed
Most Important Medical Fact Exposed Here.    Identity Of Foot And Mouth Disease With Vaccination Proved
Vaccination Is Doctored Smallpox.    It Assumes Various Forms And Is Often Worse Than Natural Smallpox
Proof That Vaccination Causes Mongrel Smallpox And Foot And Mouth Disease And That The Nature Of The Vaccinal Eruptions Proves The Identity Of These Diseases
An Indictment Against Bovine Vaccination
How One Strain Of Vaccine Virus Originated From One Smallpox Tramp—And An Infected Cow. Shocking Letter From A Manufacturer Of Virus To A Doctor
The Disputed Or Unknown Origin And Nature Of Modern Vaccine Virus Emphasized. Letter From Parke, Davis & Co., One Of The Largest Makers Of Virus In The U. S.
An English Sailor Loses His Arm From Cowpox Vaccination
Case Of Henry Plant
Death Of An English Soldier From Typhoid Vaccination.   A Typical Case
Sickness And Death From Vaccinations In U. S. Army
Most Important Medical Point Established. Relation Of Vaccination To The Two Chief Causes Of Death In The Army-Pneumonia And Meningitis-Proved
The Slaughter Of The Innocents Illustrated. How Little Children Are Infected And Killed By In­flicted Disease In The "Savage Rite" Of Vaccination
Some Leaves From Mr. Loyster's Pamphlet
Case No. 1  Case No. 2  Case No. 3  Case No. 7  Case No. 8  Case No. 18  Case No. 19  Case No. 20 Case No. 24  Case No. 25  Case No. 27  Case No. 28  Case No. 29 
Mr. Loyster's Argument And Proof That Infantile Paralysis Is Caused By Vaccination
Mr. Loyster's Conclusions
A Cry For Help! Harrowing Personal Letters From Victims Of Vaccination. Medical Evil Of Compulsory Disease, Causing Deformity And Death In School Children And Others, Denounced And Reform Demanded
Letter From An Aggrieved Father On The Death Of His Little Boy From Vaccination
Proposed Law To Compensate Parents For Injury To Or Death Of Vaccinated Children
Shocking Medical Mendacity, On The Alleged Harmlessness Of Vaccination
The Philippine Falsehood
Health Department Falsehoods
Falsehoods From The Encyclopedias
The Errors In The Britannica
The Errors Of Dr. M. J. Rosenau, A High Medical Authority, On The Relative Harmlessness Of Vaccination
Jenner's Great Falsehoods.    The Original Mendacities Of Vaccination Exposed
The Dangerous "Vaccination Creed" Of The Chicago Board Of Health Explained And Condemned
The False Glory Of Jenner And The Disgrace Of The Medical Profession
What Protects Us From Smallpox In Modern Times? Is It Vaccination Or Something Else? A False Claim Exploded
The Unsanitary Conditions Of Jenner's Day Exposed. Power Of Sanitation To Extinguish Smallpox Admitted By Jenner's Chief Assistant In 1815
Further Proof From The English Minister Of Health That Sanitation Prevents Smallpox More Than Vaccination. Poorly Vaccinated London More Healthy Than Much Vaccinated Berlin
Only A Limited And Voluntary Use Of Vaccination Suggested And Approved.    Forced Vaccination Of School Children Condemned
Absurdity Of Compulsory Vaccination Of Children Of School Age Who Have Highest Immunity And Vitality And Lowest Death-Rate Of Any Part Of The Population
Vaccination A Poor Protection Against Disease. Flagrant And Frequent Failure To Protect From Smallpox Or Typhoid Fever Shown By Many Typical Instances At Home And Abroad
Summing Up-The Case Proved



From the Statue of Wisdom and Law, at entrance to Appellate Court, Twenty-fifth Street and Madison Avenue, New York City. Statue and motto by F. W. Ruckstull, Sculptor.   See Frontispiece, Plate 1.


Compulsory Vaccination is an instance of a law which inflicts actual disease and possible death on the human body and propagates and disseminates deadly infections widely upon animals and mankind. This is surely a glaring instance of a law which is not based on Wisdom or Sanity and is a Menace to the Health and Security of Human­ity and the State.

"This amazing act is the homicidal insanity of a whole profession. This is blood assassination."
Dr. James J. Garth Wilkinson, 1876.

"It is unwise for the physician to force the operation upon those who are unwilling, or to give assurances of absolute harmlessness." Dr. Osier's "Modern Medicine," 1913, Vol. I, page 848.

"Vaccination is not always a harmless procedure; it must be looked upon as the production of an acute infectious disease." Dr. Milton J. Rosenau, 1914.

"Against the body of a healthy man Parliament has no right of assault whatever, under pretence of the public health." Professor F. W. Newman, of Oxford.

"Vaccination is a delusion, its penal enforcement a crime." Professor Alfred Russel Wallace, in "The Wonderful Century" 1899.




IN order that there shall be no misunderstanding about the serious charge which I bring against vaccination, as being now actually more dangerous to public health and human life than natural smallpox, and the equally serious charge which I make against vaccinating doctors—who now control our De­partments of Health and Vital Statistics—of denying and concealing these facts from the people, I now issue this special challenge to the Departments of Health of the City and State of New York, which cover a population of eleven millions, and with whose records I am more familiar, that I will undertake to prove from their death certificates and vital records, now concealed and withheld from the public, that there have been more deaths from vaccination than from smallpox in every year for the past fifteen years in the City and State of New York. If they deny the truth of these charges I further solemnly chal­lenge them to open their now concealed records to public ex­amination and I will prove the truth of my charges from these records. Will they now dare to deny these charges or will they dare to refuse to open their heretofore hermetically concealed records to give the full medical and statistical truth to the
people on these most important points?
Chas. M. Higgins.
Brooklyn, New York, September 17, 1919.



All men are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among which are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. Declaration of Independence, 1776, more properly called Declaration of Rights.


"The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people." "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitu­tion nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the people." U. S. Constitution, Articles IX and X, 1789.


Under our Basic Charters, just quoted, the sovereign right and power rests in the People, and the Government has no rights or powers, whatever, except as conferred by the People. QUESTION: Where have our State or National Governments obtained the right to force any medical remedy or operation upon citizens against their will and consent? Where have these governments obtained the right or power to force an infectious and deadly disease upon the human body in defiance of the will and the right of the citizen?

Have the people ever given up their most sacred essential and unalienable right to the sanctity and security of their own bodies and to their free choice and right of selection in the medical treatment of their bodies? This is surely one of the great "unalienable," "reserved" and "retained" rights which the people have never given up to any government, and which the Legislature or police power has no right to invade.   C. M. H.


"There is, of course, a sphere within which the individual may assert the supremacy of his own will, and rightfully dispute the authority of any human government, especially of any free government existing under a written constitution, to interfere with the exercise of that will." U. S. Supreme Court in Vaccination case of Jacobson, 1904. Note: This decision also held that vaccination could not be legally forced upon any persons who could show that it was dangerous to their health or life.

"It may be conceded that the Legislature has no constitutional right to compel any person to submit to vaccination." Judge Woodward, of New York Appellate Court, in Viemeister case in 1903.

"If the Commissioner of Health had the power to imprison an individual for refusing to submit to vaccination, I see no reason why he should not also imprison one for refusing to swallow a dose. But the Legislature has conferred no such power upon him, if, indeed, it has the power to do the like." Judge Gaynor in Supreme Court, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1894, case of Smith vs. Emery. This decision was fully sustained by the Court of Appeals.


"I concur in Judge Chase's construction of the statute. But I would go farther.   I deny the power of the Legislature to make it a crime to treat disease by prayer."  Decision of Chief Justice Willard Bartlett, of New York Court of Appeals, in "Christian Science" case of Willis Vernon Cole, 1917.


From these decisions it would seem to be obvious that it cannot be made a crime to refuse a medical operation to which the patient does not consent or approve, and which is dangerous to health or life, and that this is the "sphere," as stated by the U. S. Supreme Court, "within which the individual may assert the supremacy of his own will and rightfully dispute the authority of any human government ... to interfere with the exercise of that will."   And, furthermore, this "sphere," surely means the "Unalienable rights" of the people asserted in the Declaration and the "reserved" rights and powers retained by the people as expressed in Articles IX and X of the Constitution.   C. M. H.


"I have sworn upon the altar of God, eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." Thomas Jefferson, Author of Declaration of Independence, to Benjamin Rush, Signer of the Declaration.


The right of the individual to select any preferred system of medical treatment, whether with or without prayer and faith, with or without drugs and medicines, or with or without vac­cines or serums, and the right to accept or refuse any medi­cal remedy or operation, is surely a clear inherent and re­served right, under our basic American Charters of Rights and Liberties, and cannot be legally or morally denied, but must be respected, defended and enforced by all Governments. Indeed, our first and Basic Charter—The Declaration of Rights—clearly and emphatically asserts that the essential purpose of Government is to secure these inalienable rights of the individual. Jefferson taught that Liberty, in all essential needs, is not a "privilege" granted by Government, but an inherent right possessed by all men, and naturally or divinely conferred upon them; hence the chief function of all Governments is to secure and enforce these human rights, not to invade or violate them to satisfy medical dogmas or other oppressive, dangerous, and illegal theories.   C. M. H.


All Compulsory Vaccination should be abolished as being illegal and unconstitutional and more dangerous to public health and human life than natural disease, and therefore a medical outrage and crime upon the people.

The Declaration of Rights distinctly asserts that: "Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it."

The "ends" here referred to are the natural "unalienable" and "reserved" rights of the people, which are grossly violated by Com­pulsory Vaccination, and it is therefore the moral, legal and consti­tutional right of the people to demand the abolishment of this medical evil of compulsory disease which obviously violates their most sacred and essential personal rights, viz.: Sanctity of Body, Medical Liberty and Choice, Health and Life.


"No form of vaccination or inoculation shall be compulsory on any person or be made a condition for the exercise of any right, privilege, or duty, of any person."

1.    The vaccinated calf, showing how vaccine virus is made and how cattle and mankind are diseased by it
2.   A vaccinated arm showing the ripe, normal vaccination sore or pustule as a distinct form of "Purulent Infection".
3.   A bad case of vaccination showing an ulcerating sore.
4.    Multiple vaccinations spread from the arm to the face by scratching   with   the   fingers,   showing   highly   infectious nature of vaccination
5.   Photograph of a little child killed by "Generalized Vaccination," where the vaccinal eruption spreads all over the body like confluent smallpox
6.   A severe form of vaccination in a little child, where the inflammation  and eruption  spreads  from  the  sore over part of the body and endangers life by blood poisoning or general  septicemia
7.     A cow suffering from "Foot and Mouth Disease" or Virulent Cowpox, in the epidemic of that disease, caused by vaccine virus in New England in 1902
8.     View of a pair of oxen suffering from the same disease in said epidemic caused by vaccination
8b. Eruptions of foot and mouth disease on udder and teats of  cow
9.    The Vaccine  Holocaust:   photograph of funeral  pile of slaughtered cattle infected by  Foot and Mouth Disease caused by vaccination in said epidemic of 1902 and shown ready to be burned to destroy the infection, at great loss to the government and people of the United States
10. Map of the second epidemic of Foot and Mouth Disease in 1908, caused by vaccination which originated from vaccine factories in Michigan and Pennsylvania and spread to several States
11.   A Vaccination Horror: photograph of a woman victim suffering with a virulent form of Cowpox or Foot and Mouth Disease, in the epidemic of 1902, caused by vaccination and resulting in death
12.   Photograph of a man suffering with a severe form of the same disease in the said epidemic of 1902, caused by vaccination, but resulting in recovery after nine successive eruptions.
13.    Photograph of a vaccinated school-boy suffering with a milder form of cattle disease, "Pemphigus," or virulent Cowpox, caused by vaccination in  1914, resulting in recovery after years of suffering
14 and 15.   Photographs of an English sailor who lost his arm from vaccination
16.   Photograph of an English soldier killed by Typhoid Vaccination
17.   Cartoon from Harpers  Weekly.    The "savage rite" of vaccination shown in action.   "The medicine man performs his savage rites" on little children 
1 to 27. Photographs of eleven children killed by vaccination in New York State in 1914. Taken from memorial pamphlet by Mr. James A. Loyster
1.    Statute of Wisdom and Law from New York Appellate Court, with motto: "Every Law Not Based on Wisdom is a Menace to the State," a rebuke to the compulsory vaccination law  
2.   In Memoriam.   Portrait of John Pitcairn, late President of The Anti-Vaccination League of America and leading business man of Philadelphia

THIS little book on the Horrors of Compulsory Vaccination, its medical barbarism, and its moral and legal atrocity as a gross violation of Basic Personal and Broad American Rights, is dedicated and addressed to our esteemed President, Woodrow Wilson, for several decisive reasons:

First: Because I believe him to be the most potent personality in public office to-day and our greatest present representative and exponent of Fundamental American Principles and Basic Human Rights, and as being now recognized as a world-wide exponent of these principles both at home and abroad.

Second: Because the President is Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy and is thus invested with supreme commanding and pardoning power, through which he can bring about an immediate reform in the evil practice of compulsory vaccination by pardoning, at his discretion, all men in the Army or Navy now unjustly condemned by Court Martial for refusing vaccination, and by abolishing all compulsion and making all vaccination free and voluntary, as it now is in the English Army.

Third: Because the President is our highest civilian officer and represents in his person and office one of our most important American principles, the supremacy of the civil over the military power. It therefore seemed to me most fit and proper to appeal to our chief civilian officer on any great question which concerns the most fundamental civil rights of the citizen or involves any great abuse of military power, as is the case with this evil practice of compulsory vaccination. And I think it will be readily admitted that medical militarism, such as the arbitrary medical compulsion which forces and inflicts disease upon the human body, under the fallacy of medical necessity and the pressure of military law, is surely one of the most dangerous and oppressive forms of extreme militarism that can be conceived and is not in accordance with the spirit of American Institutions, and should be sup­pressed. While, therefore, I, as a student of this subject, may earnestly and persistently write and urge, and demonstrate the truth on this subject, and prove by undeniable fact, exhibit, and argument the dangerous nature of compulsory vaccination and the shocking falsehoods on which it is based as to its alleged efficacy, necessity and harmlessness, yet I have not the least power or discretion to remove this evil; whereas the power of the President in this matter is plenary, instant and complete, so that in almost the twinkling of an eye he can abolish this evil in the Army and Navy with one word from his lips or one wave of his hand. And if this evil is once abolished in the Army and Navy, its abolishment everywhere else throughout the land is sure to follow, with great advantage to human right and much improvement in public health, as has resulted wherever this medical mal­practice of inoculation with inflicted disease has been reduced or abolished, with a corresponding increase in sanitation and hygiene.

For these good reasons, I have therefore thought it most proper and advisable to make this appeal to our highest civilian official and our Chief Military Commander, who is so potently equipped to give the immediate relief and establish the reform herein asked for, viz., the full Medical Freedom to accept or re­fuse vaccination as each individual sees fit, which is a basic and inherent American right; and I therefore now submit the nu­merous and conclusive facts and demonstrations in these pages for the special consideration of the President and the general attention of the People and their Representatives in our National and State Legislatures, and as a full justification of the reform prayed for.

In conclusion, I might say that I first began this work as a simple Letter of Petition to the President to abolish forced vaccination in the Army and Navy, with a brief outline of reasons for this reform, which letter was commenced before the President sailed for Europe to attend the World Peace Conference. But the importance and scope of the subject grew as I worked on it, and I concluded to expand the letter into a full illustration and demonstration of the Horrors of Compulsory Vaccination, its failures, falsehoods, futilities and fatalities, which would be so thorough and convincing that it could not be disregarded. This enlarged work has required nearly twelve months to com­plete and make ready for the consideration of the President after his return from the Peace Conference, and its publication has been much delayed by several unavoidable conditions, including the recent great strike in the printing trades.

I might further state in conclusion that I have spent a life­time and a fortune in the study and investigation of this subject and in efforts for the repeal of all unwise laws for forcing vaccination upon the people, which repeal is now being agitated and is progressing all over the civilized world. And as I probably shall not be able to work many more years in this great cause of Medical Freedom, and as this may be my last contribution to the cause, I have concluded to make the case against Compulsory Vaccination so full and complete in this Exposure that there can be no question of its medical malpractice and its dangerous, deadly and illegal nature.

For these reasons I have also thought it my duty to give to the public the benefit of my studies of a lifetime and the accumulation of the many shocking facts, proofs and exhibits which I have been collecting for years, and which, as now massed in the Petition and its Illustrated Supplement, can, I think, leave no doubt in the mind of any reasonable man or woman—not professionally interested in vaccination—that all Compulsory Vaccination should be immediately abolished, and that its continuation, with these proofs against it, would be a most gross medical blunder and malpractice and a grave violation of the basic American principle of Inherent Individual Rights, in being a serious menace to human health and life, a frequent cause of wide-spread epidemics and demonstrably more fatal in many instances than natural disease itself, and therefore a shocking violation of all true medical ethics and a disgrace alike to modern medicine and modern legislation which should no longer tolerate the practice.

Chas. M. Higgins. Dated at 271 Ninth St., Brooklyn, N. Y.,
December 1, 1919.



Subject, in Brief: Request to the President as Commander-in-Chief to abolish Compulsory Vaccination in Army and Navy, to make all vaccination voluntary as it now is in the English Army, and to pardon all men condemned by Court Martial for refusing coercive vaccination.

Compulsory vaccination is a serious danger to health and life, a grave medical malpractice and a gross violation of medi­cal ethics, and of the American principles of Inherent Natural Rights guaranteed in the Declaration and the Constitution, and should be abolished.' Dangers and Fatalities of vaccination exposed and illustrated.


from Chas. M. Higgins of Brooklyn, N. Y.
a citizen of the United States

   The President of the United States
     Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy. Washington, D. C.
Mr. President:
American History, as you well know, tells us that our first President, the illustrious George Washington, died in 1799 as the result of a medical malpractice common at that time, viz., the barbarous and dangerous practice of indiscriminate bleed­ing to cure disease. While suffering from an attack of acute sore throat or laryngitis, the patient was so weakened by the great loss of vital fluid in repeated bleeding operations that he was not able to endure this loss and overcome also the effects of the disease. Our great Washington thus gave up his glorious life—glorious in the establishment of American Liberty and the principles of Inalienable Natural Rights of the Individual as a basis for all Government—on the altar of medical barbarism and malpractice.

Let us now take this warning from the medical barbarism of the past, even over such a long interval of time, as a fit warning against the medical malpractices and barbarisms of to-day, which are even more irrational and dangerous to human right and safety, health and life than the malpractice of the past which destroyed the life of our first President.

Now the most barbarous and dangerous medical practice of to­day is the gross evil of compulsory vaccination, which is doubt­less the greatest violation of common sense, medical propriety and the unalienable natural rights of the individual guaranteed in our basic American Charters, that any dogmatic, presumptu­ous profession or class of men has ever been guilty of. And it is to this serious violation of American principle forced on our soldiers and sailors by medical dogmatism that I now wish to ask your most careful attention as one having the supreme com­manding and pardoning power in Army and Navy, with the earnest prayer that in the exercise of that exalted wisdom and power possessed by your great American Office and Personality, which has now made itself felt around the whole world, that this medical barbarism of compulsory disease may be abolished in our Army and Navy, and that all men condemned by Court Martial for refusing the infliction on their bodies of compulsory disease shall be fully pardoned and restored to their proper and honorable status as loyal American soldiers and sailors. And I now wish to present to you in the following pages an abundant array of facts and evidence which prove, I think, beyond doubt, the great evil and danger of vaccination, its fatality, and futility, and clearly justify the rational reform suggested for the abolishment of all forced or compulsory vac­cination.

In this medical malpractice of to-day the doctors do not open the veins and drain out the life blood of the patient, ostensibly to cure his disease, as in the mistaken past, but they now keep this blood in the body and inject into it directly or indirectly various more or less virulent diseases, blood poisons, or disease germs, cultures or products, either living or dead, with the idea of curing or preventing some natural disease. These practices -are called, respectively, 'Vaccination" and "serum treatment." In vaccination an actual living or dead disease germ, or virus, is injected into the blood, lymph, skin or muscle; whereas, in serum or antitoxin treatment a disease product or culture is so injected.

Now, whatever merits or demerits this system of disease inoculation may have, either in preventing or curing or im­munizing against natural disease, I will not here say and do not need to here discuss, except to state that such curative or preventive power has been much exaggerated and is very limited and uncertain. But whatever these merits or demerits may be, it is obvious on fundamental principles of medical and civic ethics, that such a dangerous and repugnant practice of disease inoculation and blood poisoning should not be made compulsory on any person for any excuse whatever. It must be here re­membered that it was admitted that the old smallpox inocula­tion had a certain preventive power and yet it was finally condemned and abandoned for reasons of its great danger as causing more disease and death than it prevented. Disregarding, therefore, the question of preventive merits or demerits, 1 think I can now say with perfect truth and soberness, and without fear of refutation, that this modern system of compulsory vaccina­tion is the most violent and dangerous and most immoral or unethical system of medication that has ever been devised by a most honorable yet most presumptuous profession which has been proved guilty of the most gigantic medical mistakes in its past history of the centuries, one of which—indiscriminate bleeding—as we have already seen, killed our first President and many other victims of that period. To this gigantic and aban­doned mistake we might now add the two horrible practices of smallpox inoculation and arm to arm vaccination, both of which were once used and approved by the highest medical authority as safe and infallible preventives of natural disease, yet both were finally abandoned as great medical mistakes and were prohibited by penal law as most risky methods of propagating and extending disease and more dangerous to human health and life than the natural disease itself.

For these former medical mistakes there is now substituted the modern medical mistake of compulsory bovine and serum vac­cinations of various kinds and multiple repetitions which are in many instances as dangerous to human health and life as the former prohibited malpractices, or more so, and will, doubtless, in due time, be publicly condemned and abandoned as equal mistakes, like their predecessors.

Indeed, this modern vaccine system of medicine is so violent and dangerous that it has been frequently known to kill in from ten to fifteen minutes, after injection of the serum, by what is known as "serum sickness/' which is a kind of rapid blood and nerve poisoning affecting vital nerve centers, to which some persons are very susceptible.1 This is, of course, a more violent, rapid and fatal action than occurs in the most virulent and deadly natural diseases and is comparable only to a stroke of lightning or shock of electricity or to the violent action of the most virulent chemical, mineral, animal, or vegetable poisons known in toxicology. In other fatal cases, where the poisoning action is slower, death finally occurs from lockjaw, paralysis, meningitis, or pneumonia, which are frequent results of vacci­nation. And these fatal results of vaccination are commonly denied and concealed in death certificates by recording the terminal disease of lockjaw, paralysis, meningitis, or pneumonia only as the sole and original cause of death without any record of the inflicted disease—vaccination—as the primary or con­tributory cause of the death. This evil practice is, of course, a gross falsification of our vital statistics, and is now a frequent offense by some of our vaccinating doctors, as I can legally prove by documentary evidence when required.

1 See U. S. Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin 91, Dec, 1913.   Also "Preventive Medicine," by Dr. Rosenau, 1914, page 410.

In some death certificates, however, the vaccination is more or less clearly and honestly acknowledged as the cause of death, direct or indirect. I have now in hand a recent New York death certificate which records the death-of a little child one year old in three days after vaccination from vaccinal septicemia, or blood poisoning, due to the vaccinal infection.

And let me here say that every vaccination sore is simply a septicemic abscess and focus of infection, more or less dangerous, and is possibly capable of infecting the whole system at any time with fatal effect; and, furthermore, every act of ordinary cowpox vaccination is, of course, an act of septicemic infection or blood poisoning, per se, and pure and simple, and frequently kills in this way in the longer or shorter time of a few days, which is, of course, quicker than the worst forms of natural smallpox ever kill. See Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, pages 83 to 88. On this point see also the "Manual of Causes of Death," by U. S. Census Bureau, page 56, No. 20, and the corresponding Manual of the Registrar General of England, in which vaccination is recorded as a form of septicemia and a serious cause of death.

As further convincing evidence on this head, I have a Brook­lyn death certificate showing the death of a woman hospital nurse six months after vaccination, from multiple abscesses which broke out all over the body in successive crops and continued for six months notwithstanding the most skillful medical efforts for cure, and finally resulted in death from general vaccinal septicemia. See Figs. 11,12 and 13, which show other cases of this kind.

I have an English certificate showing the death of a man from the same cause, multiple abscesses, resulting from vaccination and continuing for seven years, and finally ending in death from this cause.

I have also another English certificate which shows the death of a little infant from vaccinal septicemia in thirty-four hours after vaccination! Of course the worst form of smallpox was never known to kill in such short time.

These shocking facts thus clearly show that an inflicted disease may be far worse and more fatal than a naturally ac­quired disease, and that vaccination may kill with surprising swiftness in a few days, hours, or minutes, quicker than the most fatal natural diseases or the most virulent poisons, or may con­tinue a most horrible blood infection with internal or external eruptions through an agony of months or years and finally end in death from this infection.

I have also some recent American death certificates which show the deaths of five little children of primary school age, all killed in one week in September, 1915, from vaccination resulting in lockjaw and septicemia. I have now in hand a memorial pamphlet written by an aggrieved father, a very intelligent man, an editor and manufacturer, Mr. James A. Loyster, of Cazenovia, New York, which shows the death of his own son and about thirty other children from vaccination in New York State in 1914. This child slaughter was the result of a general vaccination raid made upon the school children of the State in that year; and this pamphlet gives convincing proof that about thirty, and probable proof that about twice that number, were killed by vaccine infection, while only three persons died from smallpox in the whole State for the same year! See pages 145 to 163, which give several pages of this pamphlet in full.

These deadly vaccinations above cited were almost all per­formed on school children to satisfy an evil law which has been originated and sustained by a powerful but mistaken part or sect of the medical profession—the vaccine sect—by which law vaccination is forced upon children of school age as a condition for admission to school, thus making the infliction of a danger­ous disease on the tender body of the child a condition for the exercise of that most essential, unquestionable, and inalienable right of the child to Education! Such invasion of natural right to life, health, and education is surely the clearest violation of those great American principles of inherent natural rights so distinctly set forth in the Declaration and Constitution which all Governments must respect and defend, as I will show later on.

In the same way this dogmatic and dominant part or sect of the medical profession, organized in powerful medical societies and now controlling important public offices, has forced the dangerous practice of general compulsory vaccination upon our Army and Navy, and this practice is, I believe, largely the result of having only one school of medicine—the vaccine school —represented on our Medical Boards and in our Departments of Health and Vital Statistics. To thus have only one school of medicine represented on our Medical Boards of Army and Navy is, I submit, as great a mistake, as unjust, absurd, and un-American, as it would be to have only one school of Religion represented in our Army and Navy chaplains. For, surely, med­ical tolerance and freedom is as important for national welfare as religious tolerance and freedom. And to this particular point, Mr. President, I would, therefore, now like to ask your first and most careful attention, with the suggestion and hope that, as supreme commander of both arms of the service, you will not only find it just, wise, and proper to abolish all compulsory vaccination in Army and Navy and leave vaccination entirely voluntary with each man, as it now is in the English Army, but that you will also abolish all arrogant monopoly or control of medical practice in Army and Navy by any one school of medi­cine, and will adopt the reform in the future of having various schools of medicine properly and justly represented on our Med­ical Boards, from which reform, I believe, a great improvement in medical practice and in public right, health, and comfort is sure to result.

At this point I would like to call your careful attention to a news item which appeared in the New York Times of May 2, 1918, as follows:

"Refused Vaccination, Got Fifteen Years.
"Camp Dodge, Iowa, May 1.—Elmer N. Olson, of Goodrich, Minn., a soldier in training here, refused to submit to vaccination. He was tried by general court-martial and sentenced to fifteen years in the disciplinary barracks at Fort Leavenworth."

This is only one of many similar items which have appeared in the press for the last two years, showing that it has been a practice in the army to try soldiers by court-martial for refusing to be vaccinated against free will and consent; and to degrade them from honorable military service merely for this refusal, and condemn them to long terms of imprisonment such as are given only to dangerous and felonious criminals under the criminal law,—and it is shown in this item that the extraordinary punishment of fifteen years' imprisonment was thus inflicted for the sole offense of refusing compulsory vaccination! It may be that in some cases other offenses besides mere refusal to be vaccinated were involved, but I understand from several news items that only the act of refusal to submit to forced vaccination was involved in many such condemnations.

In answer to a special request for information on this point, I have been informed by the office of the Judge Advocate General, in a letter dated January 14, 1919, that there was only one instance of court-martial for refusing to be vaccinated in the years 1917 and 1918, that this was held to be a violation of the 96th Article of War, and that the offender in this case was sentenced to be "Dishonorably discharged from the service, to forfeit all pay and allowances due or to become due, and to be confined at hard labor at such place as the convening authority may direct for twenty-five years."

Now I respectfully submit, Mr. President, that whether there were one or many cases of this kind, they were clearly cases of "cruel and unusual" and excessive and unreasonable punish­ment and also an "unreasonable search and seizure of the person," condemned in the Constitution in Articles IV and VIII of the Amendments, as follows:

Article IV. 'The right of the people to be secure in their persons . . . against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated."
Article VIII. "Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fine's imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted."

I therefore think it is perfectly obvious that to thus degrade a loyal and honorable soldier and condemn him like a felonious criminal to the long term of fifteen or twenty-five years' imprisonment, merely for the act of refusing to have a dangerous medical operation and an inflicted disease forced upon his body against his will and consent, is clearly an "unreasonable seizure" of the person and a "cruel and unusual" and excessive and unreasonable punishment prohibited in the Constitution; and I think that no further argument is necessary to prove this point. Surely to inflict such drastic punishments as above shown—not for any really criminal, immoral, or perfidious act—not for any­thing that really affects the purely military duties, qualities, or services of any loyal, honorable and healthy soldier—but simply for opposing a dangerous medical dogma and defending his body against an inflicted disease and a dangerous medical operation which frequently sickens and unfits the soldier for a long time afterwards for military service and sometimes actually kills— as already clearly proved—surely, I say, such a punishment is not only legally unconstitutional, but is morally barbarous in both a true military and true medical sense, and should be abolished in both Army and Navy for the several reasons herein submitted.

In the New York Tribune of January 4, 1919, the President of the American Bar Association, at a meeting in New York City on January 3rd, condemned harsh and unjust judgments of military courts-martial, and stated that "our military laws and our systems of administering military justice are unworthy of the name of law or justice.'   He also said that our army was still following rules copied from England in 1774, but which were abandoned long ago as better suited "to the armies of feudal times than to the citizen armies of a modern republic.'   He also condemned "the outrageous punishments meted out  by our courts-martial for comparatively slight breaches of military discipline."   And he further stated that "Punishments are not only grossly harsh, as compared with the penalties imposed for like offences by our criminal courts, but they also differ so widely that we find the same offence punished in one court-martial by twenty-five years in the penitentiary and in another by six months in disciplinary barracks." . . . "The accused soldier has no real legal protection." . . . "The maintenance of military discipline does not require this harsh and arbitrary procedure. The French army is a model of discipline, but an accused soldier has the protection of the law thrown around him at every stage of his trial. That a soldier in our army should have less legal protection challenges the attention of the lawyers of the country. The American people never will stand for Prussian methods even in disciplining the Army.

Lest some false interpreter should suggest that in here con­demning compulsory vaccination in the Army and Navy and urging its abolishment I am attempting "to incite insubordination, disloyalty, or mutiny, or refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States," as expressed in the Overman Law, I would now call careful attention to the obvious fact that urging the abolition of a bad law, or petitioning govern­ment "for a redress of grievances," is not urging disobedience to any law, is not inciting mutiny or refusal of duty or disloyalty to the United States, but is a clear constitutional right under Article I of the first amendment, which right, it is there stated, cannot be abridged or denied.

If any loyal soldiers, opposed to forced vaccination, should ask my advice whether they should accept or refuse it, I would advise them to protest against compulsion and ask for its abolition, but I would not advise them to deliberately disobey any legal military rule. And I would further say here that I believe that any soldier who might be injured or killed as a result of any vaccination, to which he was forced to submit by any military law, would suffer and die in the service of his country with just as much honor as if he had died on the battle-field; or with as much honor as in the case of Socrates, the great Grecian soldier and philosopher, who died in obedience to bad law and unjust judgment.

I would further advise all conscientious objectors to forced vaccination to consider the teaching of some strict moralists, that it is better to obey all laws, however bad, than to disobey any of them, and that this obedience and sacrifice is the first duty of the soldier and citizen. And it is also taught that this obedience to bad law, after full and due protest against it, is the best way to bring about its repeal in due time.

This seems to have been the teaching of the great Socrates— the pagan Christ, 399 B.C.—and was the chief lesson of his tragic death. Knowing that he was unjustly and falsely condemned and that his judges acted wrongly, yet within the forms of law, he refused to escape this false and unjust judgment, although he could easily have done so with the help of powerful friends who urged this upon him. Yet he nobly accepted the judgment of law and drank the cup of poison to which he was legally but wrongly sentenced, and thus gave up his life to vindicate what he believed was the sacred duty of the citizen to obey all laws, just or unjust, and the still more sacred duty of the lawmaker and the judge, that all laws and judgments should be absolutely just and true and faithful to all rights of the citizen. If, therefore, it be the first duty of the citizen and soldier to obey all law, good or bad, what a much greater duty is laid upon the law­maker, the law enforcer, the Judge, and, we might also say, the Commander-in-Chief, that all law and all judgments be abso­lutely right, just and true, and in no way destructive to the rights of the citizen or soldier who has to obey these laws, good or bad! This was the grand lesson intended by Socrates in the sacrifice of his life as a protest and indictment against bad law and unjust judgment, and we may here, properly, apply this great Socratic lesson, which has morally thundered down "the corridors of time" for the past twenty-four centuries, to all the evil laws for compulsory vaccination which now exist and which should be immediately repealed and replaced by just and equi­table rules for voluntary vaccination only as proved by the many reasons already given.—"Every law not based on wisdom is a menace to the State."   See page v.

At this point, Mr. President, I want to remind you of the rich American thought you expressed in your address to the American soldiers on the battle-field in France, at Chaumont, on Christmas Day, 1918.   You were reported to have there said:

" . . . this is not a war in which the soldiers of the free nations have obeyed masters. You have commanders, but you have no masters. Your very commanders represent you in representing the nation of which you constitute so distinguished a part."

Now, the true American thought in this quotation, as I take it, is that, as American soldiers and citizens, they are free men and members of a free state, with American rights and dignities that cannot be invaded, and are not "slaves," "chattels," or "subjects" to any one, and, therefore, are not to be treated by any form of military despotism or arbitrary medical dictation, as slaves, hogs, or cattle might be so treated. And as the hog or cattle doctor might properly force any medicine down the throat of the helpless beast without being required to say "by your leave" to his humble patient, or might perform on the body of the helpless animal any operation that he or the owner might decide upon, yet I think that neither of us would admit that any man calling himself a human doctor could, with any decency, propriety, or legality, follow this crude but necessary code of ethics of the animal doctor on the human subject by attempting to perform any medical service on the human body by any intimidation or force or without full approval and consent of the patient. Yet what have we seen? We have seen men, call­ing themselves doctors, claiming the right to force dangerous medical operations on school children and soldiers without their free will and consent, and with some form of barbarous intimidation or coercion, as they might do with dangerous beasts.

We have seen loyal soldiers, conscientiously objecting to unnecessary and dangerous operations on their bodies against their approval or consent, who were tried by court-martial and condemned to imprisonment at hard labor for twenty-five years! And this outrageous sentence was inflicted for nothing more than for asserting one of the most obvious and unalienable rights of every American—the right to the medical sanctity of his own body, the right to medical freedom, choice, and consent in any medical treatment of that body!

Is it not time, therefore, Mr. President, that this clear Ameri­can principle expressed in your address just quoted should now be applied in this matter, and that this Medical Hoggery of compulsory vaccination should be abolished in our Army and Navy? And is it not time also that the members of that "Divine" profession of Human Healing, in all its schools and sects, should now take action at the earliest possible day to purge their great profession from the deep disgrace of this Medical Hoggery, which they have originated and too long practiced, and which is involved in all forms of dictatorial and compulsory medicine on the human subject?

Of course, in anything I say here I make no reflection on the veterinary doctors whose work, in its own sphere, 1 regard just as honorable as the work of any other doctors in their sphere.

There is another strong consideration which I think should move you, Mr. President, toward abolishing this evil of com­pulsory vaccination with "cruel and unusual" punishment, and that is: That this compulsion and punishment is not really necessary for any military purpose or efficiency, as is proved by several facts in the past and present practice and experience of our own and other armies, for example: First: In the Russian-Japanese war the Japanese adopted for almost the first time the modern, effective system of general military sanitation and hy­giene, but used no typhoid vaccination, and yet the army suffered very little from typhoid fever. Second: Per contra, in the Gallipoli expedition in the recent war the English soldiers were generally inoculated with typhoid vaccines, but at the same time the most unsanitary conditions prevailed in camp and field, and the result was a great loss from typhoid and other fevers among the vaccinated. Third: In the U. S. Army in France in 1918, in several camps where sanitation and hygiene were grossly neglected, typhoid vaccination proved to be little or no protection, and it has been officially admitted to be a great failure, as typhoid epidemics prevailed extensively in said camps with a high death-rate among the well vaccinated men. See official report on this subject from the Chief Surgeon of the v A. E. F. in U. S. Public Health Reports of March 28, 1919, entitled, 'Typhoid Vaccination no Substitute for Sanitary Precautions." See also page 207 in the annexed Supplement. Fourth: Vaccination is now voluntary in the English Army, and it is estimated that from five to ten per cent, of the Army is unvaccinated. Fifth: There is no court-martial or punishment for refusing vaccination in the English Army, as is shown by a recent inquiry in the English Parliament, reported as follows:

''Official Parliamentary Debates, April 23, 1918, Column 833.
"Mr. Chancellor asked the Under-Secretary for War, Mr.
"Question A. Whether refusal of vaccination by any sol­dier is a military crime. Answer A. Refusal by a soldier to be vaccinated is not an offence punishable under the Army Act.
"Question B. Whether any officer is authorized to inflict punishment of any kind for such refusal. Answer B. No officer is authorized to inflict punishment for such refusal.
"Question C. Whether the fact of a man who joined when vaccination was compulsory, having assented reluctantly then, alters his legal position now that vaccination is no longer subject to legal compulsion in the Army. Answer C. Soldiers voluntarily enlisted who, at the time of their enlist­ment, agreed in their attestation papers to be vaccinated, can­not be punished under the Army Act for refusing to be vaccinated."

Now, in these facts I think it is distinctly proved that compulsory vaccination is neither necessary nor surely effective as a protective remedy, but is of doubtful value as a preventive, and is not necessary where efficient sanitation and hygiene are used, as is now the practice in modern armies; and, hence, vaccination should not be forced on any soldier or sailor under penalty of drastic punishments for refusal, but should be left to the free and voluntary assent of each man, as it now is in the English Army. Furthermore, it is believed that, instead of forcing wholesale compulsory disease upon the Army, with the vain idea of increasing health, equal effort and expense devoted to true sanitation and hygiene would surely produce better results, as emphatically proved by recent critical experience in our own Army, as just cited.   See also page 210.

Surely the example of the English Army, as above given, is a good enough precedent and authority to justify abolishing all compulsion and penalties and making all vaccination voluntary in our American Army and Navy, but if any other authorities are required for this reform, I might cite for a second example the advice from one of the highest medical authorities of to-day, viz., Osier's "Modern Medicine," new edition, 1913, Volume 1, page 848, which admits the dangers of vaccination and condemns compulsion in these words:

"With the greatest care, however, certain risks are present and so it is unwise for the physician to force the operation upon those who are unwilling, or to give assurances of absolute harmlessness."

I will now ask your attention to a third authority against compulsion, which is of the highest significance and force, viz., the great English Commission on Vaccination appointed by Queen Victoria in 1889, which sat for about seven years, made a most exhaustive examination of the subject, and rendered its volumi­nous reports in 1896. This Commission was composed of five of the leading doctors and eight of the leading laymen of England, and their majority and minority reports differed on the merits of vaccination, but both admitted its dangers and both agreed in advising the repeal or modification of the English compulsory law, which, however, did not apply to adults, but only to infants under one year, which form the most susceptible part of the population. After this recommendation a law was passed, now in force, called the "conscientious clause," whereby parents can exempt their children from vaccination by filing a statement of conscientious objection; and under this law vacci­nation has so greatly declined in England that to-day it is esti­mated that over sixty per cent, of the children born are un-vaccinated, and yet, contrary to the contentions of the vaccinators, smallpox has not increased, but has greatly declined, corresponding to the decline in vaccination and to the increase in general sanitation and hygiene, as England is now one of the most sanitary countries in the world. This beneficial effect on public health resulting from repealing compulsion and making vaccination voluntary has been so positive that the English Minister of Health, Hon. John Burns, made this significant public declaration in the House of Commons on April 12, 1911, viz.: "Just in proportion as, in recent years, exemptions [from vaccination] have gone up from four per cent, to thirty per cent., so deaths from smallpox have declined."

I will now add a fourth and last example in which I think you will find a full justification for suppressing all compulsory vaccination as both evil and unnecessary, and this is the advice of one of the latest English books on "The Vaccination Question" by Dr. Millard, London, 1914. Dr. Millard, although a strong pro-vaccinist, has been for the past ten years the health officer of the unvaccinated city of Leicester, which has a population of about 300,000, and for the last thirty years has relied on sanitation and hygiene without vaccination to protect and improve the public health, and this is the gist of what Dr. Millard says of the success of this method:

"The two crucial and outstanding facts which 1 wish to lay stress upon, are:
"(a) The unexpected and remarkable experience of the town of Leicester, which for thirty years has abandoned in­fantile vaccination, yet has shown an enormous decline in smallpox mortality.
"(b) The fact that, although infantile vaccination is falling more and more into disuse throughout the whole country, yet smallpox, contrary to all pro-vaccinist expectation and prophecy, continues to decline and has almost disappeared.
. . . "The striking facts that in Leicester, without infantile vaccination, the decline has been greater than in most places, and that throughout the country smallpox has continued to decrease in spite of the falling off in vaccination, should surely be sufficient grounds for legitimate doubt.
. . . "If it can be shown that 'sanitation', thoroughly carried out, is alone sufficient for the effective control of smallpox in this country (as in Leicester), why inflict upon the commu­nity universal vaccination with all its inseparable drawbacks? Moreover, what justification can there be any longer for compulsion?
"It cannot be denied that vaccination causes, in the aggregate, very considerable injury to health, most of it only temporary, but some permanent. . . . We must never forget that vaccination is an evil. Vaccinia is just as much a disease as smallpox, though a less serious one, and all diseases must be regarded as evil and to be avoided, if possible. There is not the slightest evidence that vaccination, apart from its effect in preventing smallpox, is of the least value or anything but detrimental to the human race. ... During the last decade the deaths from vaccinia have several times outnumbered those from smallpox, whilst if we have regard to the amount of ill health caused by the two diseases (and putting aside for the moment the question of the alleged effect of vaccination in lessening smallpox) it looks as if vaccinia were becoming, so far as the community is concerned, the more serious disease of the two."

It will be seen from the last quotation that Dr. Millard is one of those honest doctors who are not afraid to tell the truth about vaccination, its great dangers and frequent fatalities, the evils and barbarities of compulsion, the superior value of sanitation, and the stinging fact that the inflicted disease, vaccinia, frequently causes more deaths per year than the natural disease, smallpox! To confirm these startling facts I will now quote a few figures, during the period to which Dr. Millard refers, from the record of the Registrar General of England which, as you know, is one of the highest statistical authorities in the world. Data from Reports of Registrar General of England showing deaths from vaccination compared with deaths from smallpox:

Year                  Total Deaths       Total Deaths  
                        from Smallpox        from Vaccination
1906....................... 21                           29
1907....................... 10                           12
1908....................... 12                           13

Total Deaths from Smallpox for six years, 1905 to 1910           199
Total Deaths from Vaccination for six years, 1905 to 1910           99
Deaths from Smallpox in said period under 5 years old                 26
Deaths from Vaccination in said period under 5 years old              98

From these remarkable figures we will see that for the six years from 1905 to 1910, in England and Wales, the total deaths from vaccination for all ages were about half the total deaths from smallpox, but that in the same period the total deaths from vaccination, in the child ages of five years arid under, were nearly four times the deaths from smallpox in the same age group!

The report of the English Registrar General for the three years, iqi r, 1912, and 1913, tell a similar story of vaccinal fatality, as follows:

Total Deaths from Smallpox for all ages for three years,
          1911 to 1913..........................................................   42
Total Deaths from Vaccination for all ages in said
three years........................................................................    31
Deaths from Smallpox in children under 5 years .    .                8
Deaths from Vaccination in children of same age .    .             30

Here it will be noted that for the three years stated the total deaths from vaccination are three-quarters of the total deaths from smallpox, whereas the deaths from vaccination in children five years old and under are over three times more than the deaths from smallpox in the same age group! I have not exam­ined the Reports later than 1913, having confined myself to the decade to which Dr. Millard refers.

This awful record of fatal vaccinations thus speaks very clearly for itself and forms a strong indictment of the whole barbarous and dangerous system of compulsory vaccination, whether for child or adult, and must condemn the evil practice in every rational mind.

It can be further proved that an equal or greater fatality from vaccination, as compared with the English records, occurs in our own country and in our own State of New York, but these fatalities are denied and concealed.in our death certificates and yearly reports by our vaccinating doctors and health officials of city and State, as 1 have repeatedly and publicly charged, and have challenged these doctors and officials to deny or disprove this charge if they can, and 1 now hereby renew this public challenge on this most serious point.   See challenge on page vi.

For further data on this point, see my pamphlets, "The Crime Against the School Child," "Open Your Eyes," "Serious Warning," and "Vaccination and Lockjaw."

Now, not only is vaccination very dangerous to health and life in many individual cases and frequently causes more deaths every year than smallpox, particularly in little children, as already clearly proved, but another shocking fact is that vaccination has been proved to be the cause of several great epdemics of deadly disease among mankind and domestic animals, and has probably also been the cause of many other serious epidemics whose origin has not yet been proved.

This shocking fact of vaccine epidemics in recent times is readily proved by current medical works, by Government Reports, and by notorious public facts occurring within the last few years, as I will now show.

I may first refer on this point to one of the strongest pro-vaccination works now published, viz., "Acute Contagious Diseases," by Drs. Welch and Schamberg, Lea Brothers & Co., Philadelphia, 1905. On page 65, in this work, the following serious admission is made:

"Several appalling epidemics of septicemia after vaccination are on record; one occurred in the United States, one in Germany, and one in France."

These epidemics are shown to have caused many deaths in children and adults, the fatal effect being very rapid, the deaths occurring in one or a few days after vaccination.

On page 74, in the same work, this clear admission of an epidemic of that most awful and fatal disease, lockjaw, caused by vaccination, is made as follows:

"In October, November, and December, 1901, there was a small epidemic of tetanus after vaccination in Camden, Phila­delphia, and to a certain extent in near-by towns.
"Camden had eleven cases, and Philadelphia even more than this number."

It is to be here noted, however, that, bad as this last admission is, the pro-vaccinators did not give the public the whole truth in this last statement, but which I will now add here, viz., that in these epidemics the deaths from the lockjaw infection in the vaccination wounds exceeded by manifold the deaths from smallpox in the same time and locality! Here is another great proof of the medical and statistical truth to which I have repeatedly called attention, viz., that vaccination is frequently a much more dangerous and fatal disease than natural smallpox, and, therefore, obviously, for this reason alone, should not be forced on any person against free will and consent.

In a previous letter to the Secretary of War, dated October 14, 1918, and published in the Washington Herald of November 20, 1918, I have pointed out the dangerous nature of vaccination, particularly during epidemics, and the hygienic importance of suspending all vaccination during our recent epidemic of influenza and pneumonia, and the further desirability of making all vaccination strictly free and voluntary.   I also then called attention to the probability that the repeated and multiple vaccinations of millions of men, in this country and Europe, with various septicemic infections for the last two years, may have had some relation to this epidemic, which seems to have been more severe among the vaccinated men in the military camps and hospitals than among the rest of the population.   And I would now like to repeat here some of the impor­tant facts which I have stated in said letter as to both the probable and the proved relation of vaccination to many deadly epidemics.

From the rapidity, severity, and mortality of this disease, it would seem not to be a true influenza, as heretofore known, and as its worst cases are characterized by a rapid and fatal ending, with a few days' sickness, in malignant or septic pneumonia, with abscesses in the lungs, it seems more related to the very fatal "Pneumonic Plague' which raged in Manchuria after the Japanese war. This suspicion is strengthened by the fact that the chief germ found in the fatal cases is the "streptococcus," which is found in the worst forms of "blood poisoning" or "septicemia," and also in vaccination. Now, the act of ordinary vaccination, as already proved, is, in itself, an act of blood poisoning, pure and simple, and it is so classed in medical and statistical works as a form of "septicemia," and one disease germ commonly found, with many others, in vaccine virus is the streptococcus, which is the chief germ found in all bad pus infections and abscess formations. Therefore, as the act of vaccination is simply the impregnation of the body and blood with a pus infection identical with "septicemia" or "pyemia," and as this infecting process has been repeated at wholesale in the bodies of thousands and tens of thousands of men closely massed in camps, should it be any wonder if an epidemic of some sort of "septicemia" should crop out at some time under such conditions?

In leading medical and statistical works, both influenza and pneumonia and typhoid fever and vaccination are all classed as different forms of "septicemia," and while I do not, of course, know, and do not say, that the recent epidemic of influenza and pneumonia was actually caused by vaccination, yet I repeat that when the body and blood of millions of men all over this country and Europe are deliberately impregnated with various septic diseases, or septicemic infections, can any reasonable person, whether doctor or layman, be surprised if such world-wide, and million times repeated, acts of septicemic infection should be ultimately proved to have some causative or conditional rela­tion to the recent world-wide epidemic of septicemic disease? Is it physically or medically possible to go on sowing and spreading some known and unknown septic diseases at whole­sale, within human bodies, without reaping some big harvest of deadly septic diseases as a necessary consequence? In the words of Scripture, can we keep on "sowing" the "winds" of infection without ultimately "reaping" the "whirlwind" of epidemics?

It has been suggested that this epidemic originated in the multi-vaccinated and diseased or impoverished German army and has traveled one-quarter round the earth from that focus of infection.

It has also been suggested that this epidemic originated from a regiment of coolies or native Hindoo troops brought from India to France who were infected with a severe disease like Pneumonic Plague, and from them this disease spread to the other soldiers in camp and field and thence over the world.

It has been further suggested that this disease should not be called a true influenza or pneumonia at all, but is essentially a most virulent form of general septicemia, and that it originated from the frightfully infected soil of the battle-fields, which, in addition to the ordinary deadly soil infections, contains virulent septicemic and cadaveric infections from the great mass of buried and unburied bodies. And as the soldiers in camp and field were already impregnated with several septicemic infections in the multiple vaccinations of five or six kinds to which they have been almost universally subjected, their systems thus became "sensitized" or highly susceptible to further infection, particularly to what was evidently a new and very severe type of soil and cadaveric infection. This, theory seems to fit the present known facts and would explain the probable origin of this very severe type of virulent septicemic plague, which shows itself in this mysterious and deadly epidemic with its mortality of thirty to sixty per cent,, which we have been improperly regarding as ordinary influenza and pneumonia.

In my letter to the Secretary of War I proved that there was a distinct medical and logical relation between influenza and vaccination, and that many serious diseases, including smallpox and cowpox, commence like influenza and may be mistaken for it,1 but 1 do not need to go into proof of that point here, but can now say that this point further strengthens the suspicions stated that the recent epidemic of influenza and septicemia or septic pneumonia may have had some causative relation to the extensive wholesale and repeated vaccinations in the military camps throughout the world, and would indicate, according to another theory, that this vaccine infection had escaped from and over­flowed its usual bounds and was running wild as a world-wide epidemic infection; and hence the positive and compelling reasons for checking this overflowing infection by suspending all vaccination while this epidemic and infecting condition exists, and making all vaccination voluntary instead of compulsory as heretofore.

1 See U. S. Naval Medical Bulletin, Oct., 1914, page 591, Smallpox on Battleship Ohio confounded with Influenza.

That the hypothetical condition suggested in the preceding paragraph, viz., that the wholesale and world-wide vaccine infection going on for the past few years had possibly escaped from its usual bounds and has been overflowing and running wild and thus causing epidemics in mankind, or animals,—that this, I say, may be no mere hypothesis or theory, but rather a hard fact, is proved by the frightful epidemics of "foot and mouth disease" in the United States in 1902, 1908, and 1914, some of which originated from two of the largest vaccine factories in this country, one in Philadelphia and the other in Detroit, and were widely distributed to cattle and mankind in several of our States. See reports of U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, 1902 and 1908. Also Year Book of U. $. Department of Agriculture, 1914, page 20.   See also page 96 in Supplement.

It is clearly shown in these reports that vaccine infection was the direct cause of these epidemics in 1902 and 1908; but the cause of the epidemic of 1914 and 1915 is not so clearly proven, although there is a strong suspicion that it was caused by vaccine infection, like the two others, and, as a matter of fact, it originated in the same State—Michigan—where the epidemic of 1908 originated and where one of the largest vaccine factories in the country is located.   See page 98 in Supplement.

These vaccine epidemics caused the destruction of hundreds of thousands of cattle and other domestic animals in over a score of States, at a loss of many millions of dollars to the Government and people of this country. See page 102. Surely, Mr. President, any medical operation so inherently dangerous and capable of inflicting such injury on animals or man should not be forced on any person against conscientious objection or without free will and consent and should not be required by our enlightened democratic Government in our Army or Navy in any form except purely voluntary, like all other medical remedies and operations.

There is an attempt made in some of the official reports to deny that these epidemics of "foot and mouth disease" caused by vaccination could be or were transmitted to mankind in virus and were limited to domestic animals, but this I believe to be a grave mistake, as I have the most convincing evidence that this disease was so transmitted to many human victims, both child and adult, with most awful effects in 1902 and 1908, and is frequently transmitted to mankind in vaccine virus. See Supplement, page 111.

This foot and mouth disease is a horrible eruptive fever, a kind of "cowpox," or something like a mongrel smallpox and diphtheria combined, or also like a very bad chickenpox, with successive crops of vesicles, blisters or blotches, something like cold sores, large and small, breaking out all over the body, but chiefly on the hoofs, or hands and feet, lips and nostrils, also inside the mouth and throat as is common in smallpox. Sometimes these blotches become confluent and pustular and continue for months, but, usually, the eruption ends in a few weeks in recovery or death. In the worst cases, with internal eruptions and pus infection, affecting vital nerve centers, the end comes in a few days by the victim choking to death from paralysis of the heart and breathing organs like what happens in infant paralysis, rabies and lockjaw. For effects on cattle and man­kind, see Figs. 7, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 13 in Supplement.

Now here we see that at least two and probably three great epidemics of fatal disease have originated from vaccine factories and this raises the serious question as to how far other epidemics, or even the recent epidemic of influenza and pneumonia, may have originated from some vaccine factory or from some of their products extensively or carelessly used. Surely the places where dangerous infectious diseases are constantly propagated on a gigantic scale, and disseminated therefrom into the bodies of millions of animals and mankind, should be the very possible or probable source of epidemic disease. Obviously, therefore, this entire subject of the present extensive manufacture and distribution of diseases or disease cultures or products and its relation to epidemics and public health should be thoroughly investigated by Congress and the Government at an early date. To show you what a gigantic and dangerous medical interest this vaccine manufacture has become, it may be sufficient to state that there are now about 100 concerns licensed by the U. S. Government to manufacture vaccines and serums for animal and human uses. This is one of the great medical interests supporting compulsory vaccination, which is a grave medical malpractice, and should be abolished wherever it exists and replaced by wholly voluntary vaccination as al­ready shown.

After careful study of this subject for years I firmly believe that, with the excellent sanitary and hygienic conditions now used in our Army, the dangerous system of disease inoculations, whereby the blood of every man is impregnated with multiple and repeated vaccinations of several diseases, such as smallpox, typhoid, para-typhoid, etc., is a system, to say the least, that is neither necessary nor ultimately useful for army health.   And it is probable that this system produces far more disease than it prevents. For example: For one death which naturally occurs in the whole population from smallpox or typhoid fever, ten to one hundred deaths occur from the far more frequent and fatal diseases of tuberculosis, measles, pneumonia and meningitis. And let us here ask, what is the use of having soldiers forced to submit to a whole series of disease infections, if these infections, at best, give immunity only for a little while from such diseases as smallpox and typhoid and make the system more susceptible to the far worse diseases of measles, pneumonia and meningitis, which actually seems to be the possible effects of vaccination from the recurring epidemics of these dangerous diseases in our heavily vaccinated camps?

As a matter of fact, my studies of deaths from vaccination for many years past show that meningitis and pneumonia are some of the most frequent complications; and these two diseases seem to have a certain relation to vaccination and seem to be very fatal where vaccination precedes them, and thus acts in what is called a "double" or "mixed infection," which is known to be very dangerous to health and life. See Osier's "Modern Medicine," 1913, Vol. I, pages 32 and 33. See also Osier's "Principles and Practice of Medicine," 8th edition, 1918, page 330, on the "Influence of Vaccination on Other Diseases." See also pages 135 and 139 in the Supplement.

Another most significant fact in this connection is the high death rate from disease in the Army, as compared with the civil population, which I will now consider.

On page 18 in the Report of the Secretary of War for 1918 the death rate of the Army in the United States from disease for the year ending August 30, 1918, is given as 6.4; that is, about 6 l/2 deaths for every thousand men in the Army. The age-groups composing the Army are, of course, on the general average, between twenty and forty, inclusive. In the same Report it is admitted that the male civilian death rate for the same ages as in the Army (twenty to forty) was about 4.7, which is a difference of 1.7 or nearly 2 per 1000 in favor of the civil population or civilian males! This civil death rate is thus, actually and relatively, much lower than the army death rate, and this fact is very significant as positively indicating some serious cause at work to lower greatly the vitality and resistance and increase the death rate in the army!   Now what is that cause?

The figures 6.4 per thousand for the Army and 4.7 per thousand for the civil population of the same ages is a great actual difference, but, of course, means, relatively, a much greater total difference against the Army because the army population is made up of "hand-picked" men selected for their nearly perfect health and physique and the absence of all serious constitutional diseases such as tuberculosis and others, which are all excluded from the army group. On the other hand, the civil population of the same age-group of twenty to forty includes the healthy and diseased, and particularly those afflicted with tuberculosis, which constitute a big fraction, and which disease is most prevalent and fatal in this very age-group of twenty to forty! Yet this civil population, containing all the diseased at the most fatal adult ages, has a much lower death rate than the "hand-picked" physically perfect army group! Now what is the cause of this much higher death rate in men of the most physically perfect class, and who are now treated with the best sanitary and hygienic living conditions, and where the death rate should be the lowest? What is the cause of this difference if it is not that extraordinary medical practice, or malpractice, which deliberately impregnates the bodies of these exceptionally healthy and "hand-picked" men with a whole series of the worst type of disease infections known—that is, septicemic infections, like the typhoids and the variolas, etc.? And should anyone wonder, therefore, if the death lists of the army should show plainly in the blood poisoning diseases of pneumonia, meningitis, etc., which are known to follow frequently after vaccination? See pages 139 to 142 for a convincing proof of this point. Surely no person of ordinary sense—not even an extreme vaccinator—can presume to seriously tell us that impregnating the human body and blood with several disease cultures and infections is a purely healthy practice per se. And surely no person of ordinary sense can come to any other conclusion except this: that such operations must be dangerous and unhealthy per se.

In all this contention, Mr. President, there is, surely, something which is very important, which should be most carefully considered and fully investigated by the Commander-in-Chief, by Congress and the Departments, at an early day.

Before closing I must here express to you, as Commander-in-Chief, my full appreciation of the wonderful work done by the War and Navy Departments and by the officers of the Army and Navy in raising, encamping, training and equipping our great Army and Navy and putting them into the fighting field so quickly and so potently, with the result of immediately turning the tide of warfare against the brutal enemy, for which majestic result these Departments, and the officers of the Army and Navy, most fully deserve, as they undoubtedly have, the unstinted thanks and congratulations of our whole citizenry, civil and military, man and woman.

No army or navy in field, camp or ship has ever been taken better care of in a general sanitary, hygienic and medical sense than our Army and Navy in this gruelling war. The able and liberal way in which the physical, moral, mental, religious and recreational needs of the men have been covered by various bodies, military, medical, civic, and religious, has been the won­der of all our citizens who have visited our camps. And to this was undoubtedly due the cheerful and high spirits, the wonder­ful morale and fighting power which made themselves instantly felt on the battle-fields of Europe and so quickly brought the barbarous enemy to his knees in the glorious climax of Victory and Peace which we are now enjoying, and which we all firmly hope and believe will soon be followed by a Permanent and International Peace coextensive with the civilized world, for which great end, Mr. President, you have been working so ably, energetically and devotedly. And I feel sure that your master efforts with our own people and with our victorious Allies will soon bring about that League of Nations for the government of the world based on the eternal principles of reciprocal right .and justice and the basic principles of American Institutions— Equality, Consent of the Governed, and Rational Liberty—for all persons in their inherent natural rights.

I, therefore, regret that 1 have had any criticism to make on this glorious record of our Army and Navy, but this criticism really concerns only a part of the medical profession in the Army and Navy, and one of its medical dogmas, and does not reflect on the rank and file of the military and naval forces of our country, a majority of which does not, 1 believe, approve this dangerous medical practice, or malpractice, of compulsory vaccination which has been forced by medical dogmatism on the Army and Navy, and which, I believe, clearly violates fundamental American principles and also stultifies our proud claim that this is a government of "Liberty and Justice for all."

In compulsory vaccination there is obviously neither "liberty" nor "justice" and it is utterly opposed to the fundamental American principle of inherent human right to medical liberty and choice, and to sanctity of body, and it therefore fits properly only with some code of Prussianism—from which it has been in fact copied.

I would, therefore, now like to show by appeal to our great basic American Documents of Rights and Liberties that all forms of medical compulsion and dictation and compulsory vac­cination are illegal and unconstitutional and also violate all true civic and medical ethics.

The Declaration of Independence is, I believe, the greatest eth­ical and political document ever penned by human hand or hu­man wisdom—the greatest document of Human Rights and Liberties, Basic Ethics, Civic Religion and Democratic Government ever written—and all expressed in its one essential paragraph, as follows:

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,—That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it."

We have been accustomed to call this great document a ''Declaration of Independence," but it should more properly be called a "Declaration of Rights" because "Independence," or self-government, is only one of the several "unalienable" rights declared in this great charter. It is in fact our great "Bill of Rights," being our first Charter and Declaration of those essential, natural, inherent and ineffaceable rights of mankind, which all governments must respect, defend and enforce, and which cannot be ignored or invaded by any authority, organization or government whatever. It is indeed our American "Magna Charta" of fundamental rights and our first or Pre-Constitution preceding our formal Constitution, and, of course, equal to it as a basis for all law and government, and particularly ex­pressing what may be termed our Pre-Constitutional Rights— that is, those rights which always existed by "Natural" and "Divine" endowment before any human laws, charters or con­stitutions were ever written; and it, of course, antedates, and therefore takes precedence even over our State and National laws and Constitutions, which, to be valid, must be based on the fundamental principles of inherent human and natural rights which are naturally and divinely and equally conferred upon all mankind. It must be remembered at this point that the official title of this great document is "The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America," which shows that it is the official statement or code of the foundation governing principles of the New Nation issued by its first Congress and has, therefore, the full effect of a "Constitution," "Pre-Constitution" or "Bill of Rights."

This great primary Code of Rights, which is adapted for the just and beneficent rule of mankind in all their relations, has not been half well enough understood or appreciated by our American people heretofore, and it has been usually looked upon as chiefly a political document, whereas, it is essentially much more than that, being in fact a great code of basic ethics and civic religion, in addition to a code of democratic govern­ment, with a wide scope and character, which fits it equally to individual, national, or international relations; and this makes it truly our American Bible and Creed and our basis for a great American and Universal "Religion" both ethical and political, which can and should be now adopted by the "League of Na­tions" as a standard code or basis for the moral and political government of mankind the world over, and should be taught in all our schools as the basis of Americanism.

It is time, therefore, that Americans clearly understood and appreciated the full ethical, legal and political scope and sense of this wonderful code of one paragraph, and it is time also that this great and simple Code of Essential Americanism was plainly emblazoned on our public walls, spaces and monuments like the inscription "Holiness to the Lord" displayed on the forefront of the high priests, as directed in Exodus, Chapter 28, so that all our people can get fully acquainted and inspired with the broad and simple principles of Right and Justice in this sublime Code of Americanism.

This great paragraph of basic Americanism should, therefore, be conspicuously posted on every public building, school, and church in the land, over the Judge's bench in every Court, over the rostrum in every Legislature and over the desk of every public officer, and particularly over the desk of every public doctor, Medical Board and Board of Health in the land, which have been heretofore some of the worst violators of this code of unalienable human rights in their various barbarous practices of medical domination, dictation and compulsion, and forced infliction of disease.

Now I do not intend, in this article, to show just how the Declaration of Independence can be seriously considered as a clear and sure basis for rational ethics and civic religion for the legal and moral government of mankind, in all relations, having reserved that important subject for full treatment in a separate article, but I do intend to show here how the evil of compul­sory vaccination and all other forms of compulsory medicine are gross violations of the Declaration and its principles of basic Americanism and inherent human rights so clearly defined therein.

First: All men are created equal.
Second: All men are endowed by their Creator with certain un­alienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pur­suit of happiness.
Third: Governments are instituted among men to secure these unalienable rights.
Fourth : Governments derive their just powers from the con­sent of the governed.
Fifth : Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it.

Let us now take up the first article of the Declaration—"All men are created equal"—and see what it means, and what it does not mean. It surely does not mean that all men are created equal in worldly possessions or natural advantages, in physical strength, personal beauty, moral sense or mental power, as it is notorious that mankind differ unavoidably and universally in all these conditions. But it clearly does mean that all men are created equal in a moral, legal and governmental sense, equal as members of society or citizens of the State, no matter how much they may differ in inherent or acquired advantages. It means that one man shall count no more than any other man before the law or in the State by reason of worldly possessions or personal advantages, but that each man shall count alike and equal, no matter how rich or poor, strong or weak, smart or dull, handsome or plain he may be. It means also that the "Creator" has not arbitrarily picked out any particular person, group, family, or race, as His special favorites, to rule or lord it over any other person or mass of persons; and, particularly, that the Creator has not specially "ordained" any favorite person to rule over any part of mankind without their selection and consent. It does mean that the Creator has no "favorites," but that all men are "equal" before Him, and, hence, that barbarous and op­pressive fallacy of "Divine-Right-Monarchism" is emphatically repudiated in this first Article. It means that all "one-man-rule" or "one-race-rule," and all vile Germanism of the "Gott-Mit-Uns" or "Germans-Over-All" type, is flatly condemned. But, per contra, this Article does plainly mean that the Creator has divinely ordained each and every human individual to be an equal "sovereign" in his own right and that all government depends on the selection and consent of these individual and equal sovereigns who are "endowed" with the "divine right" of collectively forming their own government and selecting their own rulers, instead of having a rule and a ruler forced on them by alleged "divine" command, and without their selection or consent. In other words, this Article obviously means, pure and simple, "government of the people, by the people, for the people."

Now if each individual American is divinely ordained as an equalized sovereign in his own right—and this is surely a grand distinction of the American Institution and the American citizen—he obviously has a sovereign right to his own body and all his natural possessions; and the most sacred and essential of these rights and possessions is, obviously, the right to his own physical body, the sanctity of his own person, and the right to decide how it shall be treated or taken care of in health or disease; and if he has not this sacred and sovereign right to his own body he has practically no right at all and might as well be wiped out and would be better dead. Therefore, if any doctor or other person claims the right to possess the body of any man, to experiment or operate upon it, to medicate, cut, inoculate, or treat his body as he might see fit, without the free choice, con­sent or approval of that man, it is obvious that the man is no longer a sovereign or the owner of his own body, but is a mere "slave" or domestic animal and that the doctor really owns his body and is his "master" as much as if he were a pig or dog; so that, therefore, all "equality" and "sovereignty" of the individual is destroyed by this medical "hoggery" and we have not a "government of the people, by the people, for the people" but a government of the doctors, by the doctors, for the doctors,— which in fact we now have to a very dangerous extent. And, indeed, medical organization, compulsion, dictation and domina­tion have now got to such a stage that it is one of the most dangerous powers in our body politic and must be curbed, as I will show later on.

It therefore follows that all compulsory or dictatorial medicine is an absolute violation of the first or basic principle of Americanism as expressed in our great Declaration of Rights, and our first or Pre-Constitution, and therefore must be abolished if we would be true to basic human right and fundamental American principles.

We will now take up the second Article of the Declaration and study its meaning. This Article, with a slight variation of the official words, is as follows:

"All men are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pur­suit of happiness."

Now the great keynote-words in this clause, "unalienable rights," mean "inseparable rights," rights which the citizen cannot be separated from, rights which cannot be removed or taken away from the people or denied or invaded by any government or power whatever, but which all governments must respect and defend.

This second article from the Declaration of Rights is, I think, the wisest, most important and significant statement in a political, legal and moral sense that was ever written by human hand or human mind, because it is the essence of the essential paragraph of the Declaration and clearly expresses the basis of Democratic Government, Rational Ethics, and Civic Religion, in one simple clause or sentence! This basis is simply the in­herent and "unalienable" rights of our fellow men necessary for human life, liberty and happiness, which are naturally or divinely conferred upon all men, equally, and cannot be ignored or violated by individuals or governments. And it is obvious that the honest and general recognition of these rights will at once establish true justice and righteousness among men and nations, and the disregard and violation of these rights is now, and ever has been, the cause of all wrongdoing, war, and other evils between men and nations the world over.

This simple and potent statement of basic human rights is therefore equal in ethical and legal force to the bulk of the Dec­alogue itself and to the Golden Rule of Humanity, Honesty and Justice in its three best versions from the world's greatest moral teachers, Confucius, Plato and Christ; so that in this simple sentence from the essential paragraph of our first great national document we have a code of Democratic Government and of Human Ethics in one sentence, which, as before sug­gested, should be taught in all our schools as the basis of Americanism.

It may be worth while to consider here for a moment what is perhaps the best version of the "Golden Rule," viz., the version of Plato in Plato's Laws, Book XI, Prof. Jowett's translation, which is in these words, dated about 360 B.C.:

'Thou shalt not touch that which is mine, if thou canst help, or remove the least thing which belongs to me without my consent: and may I, being of sound mind, do to others as I would that they should do to me."

This is surely a most righteous ethical code, clear, broad and simple, and in moral and logical effect it is nearer like our American Declaration of Rights than any other formula, par­ticularly as regards the recognition of the sacred personal rights of the individual which is equivalent to the principle of "un-alienable rights" in the Declaration. The phrase, 'Thou shalt not touch that which is mine or remove the least thing which belongs to me without my consent," is certainly a most right­eous rule of human honesty, sanctity, justice and security which surely condemns everything like compulsory medicine which touches and violates the body with inflicted disease, without consent of the patient, and removes and destroys the most sacred possession of the individual, viz., bodily sanctity, health and life.

It will be noted that the significant words of the second article of the Declaration state that "all men" are endowed by their Creator with "certain" "unalienable rights" among which are "life" "liberty" and the "pursuit of happiness." By the word "certain" is, therefore, clearly meant various, many or several rights, most of which are left unspecified or not categorically stated except where it refers to the chief or general rights of "life", liberty and the pursuit of happiness." And it is obvious that by these expressions are clearly meant all essential natural or "unalienable" rights which are necessary to life, safety, liberty and happiness of the individual and which do not inter­fere with, invade or endanger the life, liberty or happiness of any other individual. The right to "life" of course stands first, and is stated first, because without life we have nothing; and the right to "liberty" is stated second, because without reasonable liberty life itself would be useless, and without ample liberty to pursue our ideas of happiness in our own ways, without infringing on the liberty or happiness of others, the right to nominal liberty might itself be useless and meaningless.

Let me now remind you, Mr. President, at this point, that all the reform we ask for in this whole matter is the very impor­tant and essential right of Medical Freedom, viz., the free right of every person to accept or reject any medical operation whatever as the citizen or patient sees fit, which is obviously an "unalienable right," and, as I will soon show, is as clearly covered in the Constitution by direct implication as the right to religious freedom is covered by specific guarantee. And of the two it is obvious that the right to medical freedom is even more important than the right to religious freedom, and that medical com­pulsion is to-day a far more dangerous evil than religious compulsion ever was.

Medical compulsion is therefore not only immoral, illegal and unconstitutional, but is also contrary to all true medical ethics, which call for the absolute medical freedom and right of the patient to decide what operation is or is not to be performed on his own body and blood; and, if any doctor, or any govern­ment behind the doctor, has any sovereign right whatever to force any medication or operation on any patient, however humble, against his will, consent or desire, will some one please tell us where the doctor, or the government, got this right mor­ally, medically or legally?

Every true American and Democrat knows, that according to our immortal Declaration of Rights and our great Constitution our Government has no rights or powers whatever except what the People have given to it and that the source of all power is in the People and comes from the People to the Government, and not vice versa, as in the Monarchic systems which we have been fighting in the Great War. Under our democratic system, government does not give any rights to the people, as in mon­archic systems, but the people are endowed originally and in herently with all necessary or unalienable rights for life, liberty and happiness, and their government exists simply or chiefly for the purpose of protecting and enforcing these rights, not for granting or denying rights which exist unalienably in the people themselves.

It will therefore be found that our wonderful Constitution, as well as the Declaration, covers these fundamental points most distinctly as to inherent, unalienable rights retained by and dwelling in the people, where it states in Articles IX and X as follows:

"The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."

Here we plainly see that the Constitution, as well as the Declaration which preceded it, show that the People have a whole series of "certain" "unalienable" "reserved" and "retained" rights, and that these several rights, both specified and unspeci­fied, are divinely conferred and naturally inherent and cannot be invaded or taken away by any government, but must be respected, defended and enforced by all governments, and that governments exist for the chief purpose of defending and en­forcing these rights.

Now we might ask just here: Where and when have the People ever given up their most sacred, obvious and essential right to their choice of medical treatment and to the freedom and sanctity of their own bodies and abandoned their bodies to the doctors to seize when they see fit to inject with disease as in vaccination, to experiment on as they might wish or to operate or medicate as they might choose, without any regard to the free will, consent or desire of the patient?

As government therefore derives its "just powers" only from the "consent of the governed," so it is obvious that doctors can derive their "just powers" to operate only from the consent of the patient; and surely the unanswerable question in the preceding paragraph shows clearly the utter barbarity and illegal­ity of all medical compulsion not only in a basic moral, constitutional and legal sense but also from the basis of true medical ethics, which surely no true medical doctor can attempt to deny for one moment.

In conclusion, it therefore follows that the right to Medical Freedom is the clearest and most essential of the "unalienable" "retained" and "reserved" rights possessed by the People under the Declaration and the Constitution; and as these rights can­not be legally invaded or denied by any Government, it fol­lows, therefore, that all compulsory vaccination is clearly un-American, illegal, unconstitutional, and medically barbarous and unworthy of a place on any American, military, med­ical, or legislative Code, and should be absolutely abolished as fit only for some Code of Prussianism—from which, as before said, it has been, in fact, copied.

In illustration of the principles stated in preceding paragraphs, I might here cite a few decisions from our higher courts showing the outrageous illegal and unconstitutional nature of all forcible or compulsory vaccination.

Judge Bartlett, of the New York Supreme Court, in the case of Walters in 1894, decided that:

"To vaccinate a person against his will, without legal authority so to do, would be an assault."

Judge Gaynor, of the same Court, in the case of Smith against Health Commissioner Emery of Brooklyn in 1894, gave the following important decision which was afterwards fully sustained by the New York Court of Appeals:

"If the Commissioner [of Health] had the power to imprison an individual for refusing to submit to vaccination, I see no reason why he should not also imprison one for refusing to swallow a dose. But the Legislature has conferred no such power upon him, if, indeed, it has the power to do the like. ... If the Legislature desired to make vaccination compulsory it would have so enacted. Whether it be within its power to do so, and if so, by what means it may enforce such an enactment, are not for discussion here."

Judge Woodward, of the New York Appellate Court, in the Viemeister case in 1903, declared that:

"It may be conceded that the Legislature has no constitu­tional right to compel any person to submit to vaccination."

The Supreme Court of the State of Massachusetts, in the case of Jacobson in 1904, said:

"If a person should deem it important that vaccination should not be performed in his case and the authorities should think otherwise, it is not in their power to vaccinate him by force, and the worst that could happen to him under the statute would be the payment of the penalty of five dollars."

Judge Fitts, of the Supreme Court in Columbia County, New York, in the case of Bollinger in February, 1909, charged the jury as follows:

"I charge you, gentlemen of the jury, that the courts of this State in construing the authority and power so conferred upon local health officers who are the executive members of the board or the local boards, have held that there is no warrant or authority in law for the compulsory vaccination of any individual."

At the second trial of this case in February, 1910, Judge LeBceuf charged the jury in these words:

"Now, I have charged you that this assault which is claimed to have existed here, due to the forcible vaccination, if it was a forcible vaccination, that is, if it was against this man's will, is one which you must consider. And the reason of that is this: This man, in the eyes of the law, just as you and I and all of us in this court-room, has the right to be let alone. We all have the right to the freedom of our persons and that freedom of our persons may not be unlawfully invaded. That is a great right. It is one of the most impor­tant rights we have."

In conclusion on this most vital point, let me call your special attention, Mr. President, to a most significant and important decision of the U. S. Supreme Court in the vaccination case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts, rendered in 1905, on appeal from the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. In this long and interesting decision, one of its most clear and conclusive paragraphs emphatically declares the preeminent rights of the individual in certain spheres, as follows:

'There is, of course, a sphere within which the individual may assert the supremacy of his own will and rightfully dispute the authority of any human government, especially of any free government existing under a written constitution, to interfere with the exercise of that will."

Now, what is this "sphere" within which this highest court in our land tells us so clearly and emphatically that "the individual may assert the supremacy of his own will and rightfully dispute the authority of any human government, especially of any free government, existing under a written constitution, to in­terfere with the exercise of that will" ?

The context both before and after this paragraph shows clearly that this "sphere" of individual right and freedom exists wherever any unalienable or inherent natural right secured by our constitution is invaded or violated, or where any act or practice forced upon the individual is potentially or actually dangerous to the health or life of that individual, such as I have shown every act of vaccination to be, in its very nature being an act of septicemic infection or blood poisoning pure and simple, which sometimes causes wide-spread epidemics and fre­quently causes serious injuries and many deaths, even more deaths than smallpox itself, as has been demonstrated beyond question.

Surely, therefore, there is no individual or personal right more inherent and natural and more sacred and obvious or more surely guaranteed in Declaration and Constitution than the right to medical freedom of the body, the right to health and life and the right of the individual to select and decide freely for himself the medical treatment of his own body, and the right to guard it against any medical treatment or operation which in his own judgment and conscience may be unnecessary or undesirable or may involve great risk or suffering to himself or may seriously endanger his health or life. This right is, I think, so obvious, so fundamental and necessary and so unquestionable under the letter and spirit of our basic laws and constitution, and by the decisions of our courts as well as by all common sense, logic and ethics, that I do not think another word of argument is necessary to establish this right in the conscientious conviction of every rational mind.

In further consideration of the meaning and significance of this important decision of the U. S. Supreme Court it may be now explained that the law of Massachusetts here considered was a Statute passed by the Legislature requiring the vaccination of all persons, child or adult, under penalty of fine of $5 for refusing vaccination. This law made an exception for children or minors in delicate health or such physical condition as would be injured by vaccination, but made no such exception for adults like the defendant Jacobson.

The Supreme Court of the State of Massachusetts in its de­cision, from which this appeal was taken, had already decided, as I have shown, that the State could not enforce actual compul­sory vaccination upon any person, but could only enforce the fine of $5 if vaccination was not voluntarily adopted.

The U. S. Supreme Court concluded its decision in these words:

"We now decide only that the statute covers the present case, and that nothing clearly appears that would justify this Court in holding it to be unconstitutional and inoperative in its application to the plaintiff in error."

From this conclusion Justices Brewer and Peckham dissented, thus evidently holding that the law of Massachusetts, which inflicts a fine of $5 for refusing vaccination, was unconstitutional, whereas the majority of the Court seem to hold that this State law, which can enforce the fine but cannot compel the vaccination, was legal and constitutional, but that nevertheless this fine could not be enforced against any persons who could show that vaccination was dangerous to their health and life, and that the Courts would interfere to prevent its enforcement in all such cases and thus protect the constitutional rights of the individual within that "sphere" of preeminent individual right as already quoted.

Now it seems that the defendant Jacobson did not properly plead that vaccination was dangerous to health and life, in his own case, or offer to prove this, in his own case, and hence the decision was technically given against him, but really, in principle, for him; which decision, as we have shown, was rendered by a divided Court with two judges dissenting who evidently held that compulsory vaccination by fine, as called for in the law of Massachusetts, was unconstitutional.

We therefore believe that this decision, when properly applied, will invalidate all forms of coercive vaccination, whether by inflicted fine, or by denial of some civic right, such as public education, whenever the prosecuted case is properly tried on the correct legal pleas and issues and carried up through our high­est Courts on the principles laid down in this great decision and outlined in this analysis.

We often hear it stated that this is a government essentially of majorities and that any majority can legally and properly force its opinion or will upon any minority, no matter how objectionable to the minority this law or will of the majority might be; and that it is the clear right of the majority thus to oppress itself upon the minority and the loyal duty of the minority to yield to this oppression, however odious.

This rank idea of the supremacy of majorities is, I believe, a great legal and moral and cowardly mistake and a gross misconception of our Democratic American Government, because it entirely loses sight of the great basic principle of inherent and unalienable human rights which seems to have been first, or best, expressed in our immortal Declaration of Rights. Therefore, under this basic principle of "unalienable" right, no majorities, however powerful, can legally or morally invade or set aside any of the "unalienable" or inseparable rights of the People, as this is obviously the clear significance and meaning of the terms "unalienable rights," as I have already shown. Hence this fundamental American principle of "unalienable rights" calls in trumpet tones from the lines of the Declaration and Constitution and gives this warning to all majorities, however powerful: "Thus far shalt thou go but no farther, and here must thy power be stayed"—that is, stayed at the approach to every sacred inherent and unalienable right of the individual necessary to the life, liberty, health and happiness of the individual.

We have often heard the phrase quoted, "This is a government of laws and not of men," which is only another way of stating what I am here contending for, viz., that this Govern­ment of Americanism is not based essentially on mere numbers or majorities of "men," but chiefly on naturally or divinely ordained principles or "laws" of eternal human right and justice, and, more particularly and essentially, on the great basic American law or principle of "Unalienable Rights" of the People, which is the great American "Sanctuary" of Liberty and Right that no majority or minority can invade or profane.

Majorities can, of course, properly prevail over minorities in all matters that are purely selective or elective or which can be determined only by preponderating vote, but cannot prevail over any defined or established inherent, unalienable or constitutional right of the individual, and it has often been well said that Constitutions are made especially to protect minorities, and not majorities, who already have the preponderant political and legislative power in their hands and do not need such protection.

We have already seen how compulsory medicine is a gross violation of the American principle of Unalienable Rights and need say nothing further on that point here; but, as the exposure and condemnation of one evil may show us the way to suppress another and similar evil, so it may be excusable for us to digress here for a moment from our main subject and call attention to the fact that the same moral, legal and logical principles against Compulsory Medicine apply equally to that latest dangerous invasion of the unalienable rights of the people involved in the extraordinary scheme of National Prohibition or Compulsory Abstinence in certain foods and drinks recently forced upon the people by what is alleged to be a majority of the voters of this country. Now, I do not believe that any majority of our voters have ever approved either compulsory medicine or compulsory abstinence, but, on the contrary, that these errors have been forced upon the people by audacious, well organized and arrogant minorities who have temporarily gotten control of political and legislative power and have deceived the public mind with the allied necessity, utility and righteousness of these oppressive errors. But even if it can be shown that a majority of our voters approve either of these errors, such alleged majorities would be morally and legally unjusti­fied in overriding any inherent right of the people under our basic American doctrine and law of Unalienable Rights.

I intend to treat, in a separate article, this important subject of Alimentary Freedom, in certain fermented foods and drinks, as an unalienable right of the people, established by world-wide and age-long usage and by the highest civic, moral, legal and religious sanctions, and need give no further attention to that special subject here.1

1 This subject of Alimentary Freedom as an unalienable right of the people in time of peace has been treated in a separate pamphlet issued November 25, 1919, entitled "Unalienable Rights and Prohibition Wrongs."

In the past centuries, before our great American Institutions of Civil and Religious Liberty were established, it was the Doctors of Divinity who were wholly responsible for inventing and maintaining that great evil of Compulsory Religion, where one type of religion or one conception of Deity was forced on the whole population under penalty of torture, disfigurement, mu­tilation, or death; and these misguided men seem to have actually had the absurd and diabolical idea—incredible to us to-day —that by this mutilation and murder they could increase the sum total of morality in the whole community!

This dogma of compulsory disease is, of course, just as false and evil as the dogma of compulsory religion; but, of the two evils, compulsory disease is far more dangerous to human right and safety, health and life, and it would probably not be difficult to prove that where one person was mutilated or murdered by compulsory religion in the barbarous past, ten are now injured or killed by the modern medical barbarism of compulsory disease.

There was an old sect of heretics about the time of the Ref­ormation which seemed to have a poor idea of the value of per­sonal virtue and good works in salvation as compared with mere dogma, "grace," and "faith," and whose motto seemed to be: 'The more sin, the more grace," or "Let us sin that grace may abound." Now, this seems to be very similar to the doctrine of the coercive vaccinators of today, which appears to be simply and literally this: "The more disease we inflict, the more health we create," or "Let us inflict and spread disease widely upon the people so that health may correspondingly abound."

A striking example of the evil effects of this dangerous vaccine doctrine in recent times is found in the case of Japan, whose awful record in vaccination and smallpox and in epi­demic disease transmitted by vaccine virus is exposed in the next paragraphs.

Japan has been perhaps the most extensively vaccinated country in recent times, with most rigid compulsory laws, copied from Germany, which require re-vaccination at different periods of infant and adult life. Now vaccination, as I have already shown, is simply one of the varied forms of smallpox, being an artificially propagated or cultivated form of the disease involving human smallpox and cowpox combined, and is often more dangerous and deadly than the natural disease. This being the fact, what therefore should we expect to result from the dangerous practice of impregnating the blood of a whole population with repeated inoculations of the virus of human smallpox and cow disease? Should we logically. expect anything else but that epidemics of smallpox and cow disease should break out in due time in such a generally vaccinated and infected population, and that vaccine or cow disease should be extended to other populations wherever the virus made from human and cow diseases should be carried and used?

This logical expectation is what seems to have actually happened in the case of much-vaccinated Japan, and instead of being made immune from smallpox epidemics by general vac­cination and re-vaccination—which is one of the positive claims made by vaccinators—Japan, on the contrary, seems to have suffered from the worst epidemics of smallpox known in modern times, not only worse than in poorly vaccinated countries like England and the United States, but worse than ex­perienced in old times before the days of vaccination!

This conclusion seems to be fully proved from the U. S. Public Health Reports for September 2, 1910, which give this frightful record of smallpox epidemics in Japan for several years past. The population of Japan at that time, 1910, was about 48 millions, and the high waves in the epidemics in the preceding ten years were as follows: In 1898 there were 149,012 smallpox cases with 40,971 deaths, mortality 27 1/2 per cent.; in 1905 there were 10,704 cases with 3,388 deaths, mortality 31 1/2 per cent., and in 1908 there were 18,075 cases with 5,835 deaths, mortality 32 1/2 per cent.

These figures, considering the vaccinal conditions existing in Japan, under most rigid compulsory laws, are surely terribly significant, to say the least, and fully shatter the fallacious vaccine doctrine that vaccination is the only effective remedy against smallpox and that it always lowers the mortality in epidemics! Per contra, here we see from these official U. S. Health Reports that in this much-vaccinated population there was not only a series of severe epidemics with a very high mortality, but a constantly ascending mortality from 27 1/2 per cent, in 1898 to 31 1/2 per cent, in 1905 and 32 1/2 per cent, in 1908!   Whereas the usual mortality given by good authorities in old times before the days of vaccination was only 15 to 20 per cent.! See "History of Smallpox" by Dr. James Moore, Jenner's chief assistant, London, 1815, page 243.

Now I believe that there is no country in modern times, whether vaccinated or unvaccinated, which has shown worse epidemics of smallpox than much-vaccinated Japan, as above shown from official data, whereas the epidemics within the same period in the poorly vaccinated countries of England and the United States have been small in comparison. Surely, therefore, our "Yankees of the Orient" seem to have copied some of our antique medical barbarisms even more fully than they have copied our real modern improvements. And, surely, poorly vaccinated England is much better off with less vaccina­tion and more sanitation when its Minister of Health, Hon. John Burns, can publicly declare in Parliament on April 12, 1911, that, "Just in proportion as, in recent years, exemptions from vaccination have gone up from 4 per cent, to 30 per cent., so deaths from smallpox have declined." This also is the experience of Leicester, the sanitary English city, unvaccinated for the past 30 years, as previously shown at page 22; and such, I believe, will be the result wherever that irrational system of inflicting disease to produce health is abandoned and the rational system of sanitation and hygiene is adopted in its place.

Not only, therefore, has general compulsory vaccination failed to protect Japan from some of the worst smallpox epidemics known in modern or olden times, as just shown, but, what is perhaps still more damning, it is proved by U. S. Government Reports, quoted on pages 95 and 99, that Japanese vaccination was the source of the deadly epidemics of Cattle Plague, known as "Foot and Mouth Disease," which afflicted both animals and mankind in the United States in 1902 and 1908, this dangerous infection being imported in vaccine virus from Japan and used by two of the largest makers of virus in the United States. See Year Book, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1914, page 21. See also page 99 in Supplement. These epidemics raged in several of our States, as previously shown, and caused the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of animals, an unknown amount of human mortality, and a loss of millions of dollars to the Government and people of this country. Surely such awful results from Japanese vaccination are a shocking mockery and a stinging rebuke to all vaccination as an alleged "health" remedy and call loudly for the abolishment of all com­pulsory vaccination as a most dangerous public evil and a flagrant violation of vital human rights to Medical Freedom, Sanity and Safety.

As we now enjoy the great Democratic Institution of a Free Church in a Free State, with all church control of government and all compulsory or forced religion prohibited, so, in the near future, we must bring about an equally important reform for human welfare in preventing all medical control of our departments of government, in securing true medical freedom and prohibiting all compulsory medicine as effectually as all compulsory religion and church control of government is now pro­hibited. And as full freedom for all religious sects, in religious matters, has surely brought about an undoubted advance in re­ligious progress and in true religion and morality throughout the world, so it is sure that full medical freedom will bring about a similar increase in true medical progress and efficiency throughout the world.

Now in this most important reform of Medical Freedom I want to say at this point that 1 hold no brief for any school of medicine or religion, but what I contend for, as an American citizen, is something broader, more inclusive, more American, and more important for public right, health and safety than any one religious or medical doctrine, and that is a full Medical Freedom for all the people to adopt any honest or sincere doctrine or system of medicine which they may prefer, and a free public field for the exercise of this doctrine or system with­out any harassment or oppression from any other system of medicine which may falsely and foolishly think itself specially ordained to control the whole field of medicine. And just as we now enjoy a full constitutional guarantee for Religious Free­dom, which prevents any one sect from infringing on the con­scientious liberty of another, so we must have a full Medical Freedom with an equal guarantee which will give all honest or reasonable medical doctrines free scope and prevent any medi­cal doctrine or practice whatever from being forced on any person against free will and consent, and which will recognize the full right of the individual to adopt any preferred system of medical treatment, whether with or without prayer and faith, with or without drugs and medicines, or with or without vaccines or serums.

This broad medical freedom for all systems of medicine is absolutely necessary for true medical progress itself, for only by testing these different medical theories and practices side by side freely in every-day experience and on a wide scale can the real truth and virtue of any particular doctrine or practice be de­termined. A great modern doctor uttered a most important truth on this head when he said that "He is the best doctor who knows the uselessness and dangers of the greatest number of remedies." And the best way of finding out the uselessness, danger or virtue of any remedies is to try them carefully and freely side by side. And this free use and disuse of alleged remedies side by side in contrast or competition will ultimately sift out and condemn whatever is really evil or useless more effectually and justly than any drastic compulsion or dogmatic suppression could possibly do, thus making the best and surest contribution to true medical progress, safety and efficiency.

On the same principle, if all compulsory vaccination is abol­ished and each person left free to adopt or refuse vaccination, as he sees fit—which is his positive legal right—a true test of the virtue and safety or uselessness and danger of general vaccination will soon be arrived at. And if it can be shown in such a large and free test that the unvaccinated part of the population or the unvaccinated part of the Army and Navy is no more liable, on the average, to catch smallpox or typhoid fever than the vaccinated part, and is entirely free from the grave dan­gers of vaccination itself, surely a great lesson in medical sanity and progress will be learned. As a matter of fact, this test has already proved in the case of the U. S. Army in France that typhoid vaccination is useless as a preventive where sanitation is grossly neglected. See pages 207 and 210. It has also proved in the case of poorly vaccinated but sanitary England and particularly in the unvaccinated and very sanitary City of Leicester, as compared with much vaccinated Japan, Germany and Berlin, that good sanitation, isolation and hygiene without vac­cination give the best result in reducing and preventing small­pox in the population and also in greatly reducing the general death-rate and infant death-rate as compared to the same rates in the heavily vaccinated communities named. On this point see one of the latest medical works on this subject by a pro-vaccinator, 'The Vaccination Question," by Dr. Millard, London, 1914.

Now, as medical freedom is absolutely necessary for true medical progress, as just shown, so it is equally necessary for medical truth and human safety. At this point I am sure it will be readily admitted that even if an alleged medical remedy were absolutely effective and sure, and absolutely safe, harmless, and beneficial, it would not be ethically or legally proper to force it upon any patient against free will and consent. But when an alleged remedy is very uncertain, doubtful or irregular in its action, or very dangerous and frequently fatal in its effects, such as vaccination has been proved to be, surely the forcing of such a doubtful and dangerous remedy on any person under pretense of its necessity and harmlessness is not only unethical but it is a question whether this is not also a gross act of sheer criminal malpractice.

When, therefore, any doctor forces such a doubtful and dangerous remedy as vaccination upon any patient under the pretense that it is necessary for public health and is perfectly safe and harmless, the doctor is obviously under a most vicious moral and professional bias and interest to conceal, deny or falsify any unfavorable facts that may arise in the case, such as the failure of the alleged remedy or its injurious or possibly fatal effects on the patient, which bias and falsification is of course the greatest enemy to medical truth, safety and progress. And it is obvious that this concealment and denial of the injurious or fatal effects of medical remedies forced on the people by doctors is not only against true public policy but is a gross violation of true medical ethics and a crime upon the people in the falsification of this most important point of vital statistics, viz., the nature and effects of alleged medical remedies on human health and life, which facts should surely be fully disclosed to the public, not only for the sake of medical truth and progress but for the greater reason of human right and safety.

And it must be here remembered that our vaccinating doctors and our dominant vaccinating medical sect have now such full control of our death certificates, our departments of health and vital statistics that they can deny or conceal the effect of their medical operations with the greatest ease and safety, which is obviously a very sinister fact, against the most vital interest of the people, in public health, medical truth and safety and accurate vital statistics, and this evil surely calls for an imme­diate reform.

On the other hand, where medical practice is perfectly free and voluntary, the practitioner has no bias or interest whatever to make false claims of alleged efficiency or to conceal facts as to failures, dangers and fatalities, so that it is therefore obvious that for both medical truth and progress and human right and safety, Medical Freedom is an absolute public necessity, and that, per contra, Medical Compulsion is a most dangerous public evil which must be abolished as completely as the less dan­erous evil of religious compulsion has been abolished.

The most dangerous power in the body politic of the past age was formed by the organized intolerant and oppressive Doctors of Divinity, who had a great State Church and political organization behind them through which they dominated and coerced the people and by which they were enabled legally to force upon them the horrible, but now obsolete, evil of compulsory religion, as well illustrated in some of our early New England Colonies and in many other places throughout the Old and New Worlds, during the past centuries. And so, in a similar way, it is the Doctors of Medicine and the Medical Societies of one great dominating school or sect, the vaccine sect, which form the most dangerous power in the body politic today, and are almost wholly responsible for originating and forcing upon the people the barbarous evil of compulsory medicine and compulsory disease, in violation of the most fundamental, inherent, natural, and constitutional rights of the people.

President Lincoln—who was one of our greatest Americans— has told us that no man, however good, is fit to govern another man without the latter's consent, and I think it will be generally admitted, as a sound Democratic and American doctrine, that no one class or profession of men—not even the great clerical or medical profession—is quite perfect enough to be trusted with exclusive, unlimited or dangerous power over our fellow men. Nevertheless it is a fact that the medical profession, as now organized and possessed of political and official power, and in control of some of our most important departments of government, such as Public Health, Vital Statistics and Medical Legislation, has already a most dangerous power over the people, perhaps more dangerous and unlimited than any other class of men, and this dangerous power must be curbed as soon and as much as possible in the interest of true Medical Freedom and Progress and public right and safety.

My late esteemed friend and neighbor, the illustrious Judge Gaynor, New York's greatest mayor, uttered one of his best sayings, which we may well note and apply here, when he said: "Beware of the men or the class who are too anxious to exert power." And this warning we can now apply most pertinently to our dominating medical societies and vaccine companies, which together form a most gigantic medical interest which is the chief influence that has forced compulsory medicine and in­flicted disease upon the people and controls our Departments of Health, and which should be fully investigated by the Executive and Legislative Departments of our State and National governments, which should adopt some radical reforms to curb this dangerous medical power and safeguard the rights of the people, as suggested in the next paragraph.

The latest official reports show that there are now ninety-nine concerns licensed by the U. S. Government to manufacture vaccines and serums for both human and animal uses! These ninety-nine concerns have a capitalization of about fifty millions or more. One of the largest of these manufacturers, lo­cated in Detroit, has a capital of ten millions, while another large concern located in Philadelphia has a capital of two millions.

The two great epidemics of Foot and Mouth Disease, or virulent cowpox, in this country in 1902 and 1908 were caused by the vaccine virus of two of these ninety-nine vaccine manufacturers; and these epidemics resulted in great mortality to animals and mankind, as already shown, with a loss of millions of dollars to the Government and people of the United States; but no recompense has ever yet been made, so far as I know, to the Government or People by these vaccine companies for this great damage, and I ask your particular attention, Mr. President, to this important point.

Now, to give a list of all the medical societies in the United States and their membership figures would take too much space here, as their names and numbers are "legion"; but I can give some figures which will include the chief National Society and the chief State societies in the leading State of New York, as follows:

American Medical Association......................  43,000 members
Medical Society, State of N. Y..................       8,000
Associated Physicians of Long Island..........         503
Brooklyn Medical Association......................       200
Medical Society of Kings County................         950
Harlem Medical Association.........................        400
Medical Association, Greater City of N. Y.          750
Medical Society of County of N. Y...............    2,709
N. Y. Academy of Medicine.......................      1,400

This table, while including only a partial list of medical societies in the United States, comprises some of the largest and most influential societies of the dominant or allopathic school, active in the national field and in our own local field of New York State.   Now each State in the Union has a similar group of local or State societies and these several State societies combined with the big National societies and with the ninety-nine vaccine companies form, obviously, a most gigantic medical, political and commercial interest behind the medical evil of compulsory vaccination.   Of course, a great many doctors of this dominant school are advanced and progressive enough to oppose all compulsory vaccination; but doctors of this type unfortunately seem to be a minority, at present, in the dominant vaccine school of medicine.   On the other hand, a large majority in almost all of the other schools of medicine are strongly opposed to vaccination, particularly to all forms of compulsion.

A glance at this list of medical societies already given, with startling membership figures, combined with the ninety-nine nine vaccine companies, must convince any thoughtful man of the dangerous size and organization of these medical and vaccine interests, which obviously have more or less of a joint interest to force their vaccine operations and products upon the people as much as possible by compulsory laws, and otherwise, and whose joint profits are obviously in direct proportion to this use.

Now, no other profession has anything like the large and well organized membership and corresponding political power and influence of the medical profession in the body politic. Indeed, few, if any, trade or business organizations can compare with the medical profession in this respect, and this medical power is further greatly increased beyond that of any other profession, trade or business in being in practical control of our most important Departments of Public Health and Vital Statistics all over the country, so that in advocating and practising the dangerous barbarism of compulsory medicine this medical power can easily deny and conceal the actual effects of this dangerous medication on human health and life in our vital statistics. This is surely too much power and a power too dangerous to be left in the hands of one class or profession of men, and it would surely be an act of public wisdom to take this control of our Departments of Health and Vital Statistics out of the hands of this one medical class and entrust it to doctors of various schools or to some other professions, such as sanitary engineers, expert lay statisticians, life insurance actuaries, or even to able laymen, who would have no professional bias or interest to deny or conceal any medical mistakes or disasters, but who would hon­stly give to the public the true record, not only of deaths from natural diseases, but—what is even more important for public information, public health, and medical progress—the true rec­ord of disease and death from all artificial or inflicted diseases and medical operations in general.

As a matter of fact, the reformed system here suggested has long been in use in England, where the Minister of Health and the Registrar General have been both eminent laymen, and not doctors, but with honest doctors under them, and where the rec­ord for sanitation and public health is one of the highest and the death-rate one of the lowest in the world, while vaccination is constantly declining. Under this system the English vital statistics are also known to be the most full and reliable in the world, and deaths from vaccination and other medical practices are not denied and concealed, as in our doctor-controlled Departments, but are reported honestly and regularly every year, showing in many years a greater mortality from vaccination than from smallpox.

This medical and statistical reform should be immediately adopted in this country to abolish the dangerous medical domination and monopoly which now controls our Departments and which has long been an abuse of public power by one medical sect, a great enemy to Medical Truth, Freedom and Progress and an arbitrary power in our body politic which should be no longer tolerated under our American institutions.1

1. A change has recently been made in the law in England whereby the medical profession obtains control of the Ministry of Health, which is believed to be a change for the worse; and this illustrates the constant effort of the profession to increase its power over the people and to control all health matters, which, for the best interests of the public, it should not be allowed to do.

A typical instance of the dangerous tendency of the medical profession to extend its power over the people is shown in the recent scheme of the proposed National Department of Public Health, to be composed chiefly of doctors of one sect, with a head doctor having a seat in the President's Cabinet.

Now, a National Department of Public Health, properly organized and conducted, may be a very good thing for the public welfare, but such a Department should by no means be controlled by doctors of one dominating sect or by the big vaccine interests in alliance with it, but all schools of medicine should be properly and fairly represented in such a Department, and its head member, having a seat in the Cabinet, should be an able and eminent layman and not a medical doctor, so that the head of the Department would thus represent the interests of the whole people and not chiefly the professional ideas and interests of one school of medicine.

What would be thought of the "medical ethics" of an imaginary or hypothetical doctor who might invent some medical remedy and then have laws passed to force this alleged remedy upon his patients against free will and consent, but to his own profit, and who might at the same time get control of the Departments of Health and Vital Statistics so that he could safely and successfully deny and conceal the failures, dangers and fatalities of his alleged remedy or invention? Could there be conceived a medical policy or practice of greater professional effrontery, impudence and wicked presumption than this? Could there be a medical practice of greater danger to human right and safety and more shocking and destructive to all true medi­cal ethics and progress? Could there be any practice more violative of the inalienable rights of the American citizen? And yet this hypothetical picture illustrates, substantially, the medical policy which the people now suffer from in every com­munity oppressed with the evil of compulsory vaccination, and which would be greatly aggravated if we were to have a National Department of Health controlled by vaccinating doctors. We have heard a good deal from the medical societies as to the evils of the "Quack" doctor, the "Patent Medicine" man and the Christian Scientist, who are severely frowned upon by the regular doctor and pro-vaccinator; but these men, much abused by their alleged superiors, have never been guilty of anything so violative of true medical ethics and of public right and safety as the practice of forcing medical remedies and operations upon their patients against free will and consent, or the practice of representing remedies as absolutely necessary and perfectly safe and harmless which are in fact not necessary and are highly dangerous, and not only frequently kill the pa­tient but actually cause great epidemics of fatal diseases in animals and mankind, such as the deadly epidemics of foot and mouth disease in 1902 and 1908, already described, which were caused by inoculations with the vaccine virus from two of the biggest vaccine factories in the United States.

Now I have never heard that any "Quacks" or "Patent Medicine" doctors or Christian Scientists or any other school of medicine, good, bad or indifferent, have ever been guilty of any damage to health and life comparable to this awful record of the vaccine school, which school seems to arrogate to itself such superiority and dominance over its fellow men. So far as the average "patent" medicines are concerned, they may be said to be of three classes: First, harmless or agreeable mixtures having no actual effect on disease, good or bad, except in the fancy or faith of the patient. Second, mixtures of ordinary drugs substantially such as the regular doctors prescribe. Third, at the worst, nothing worse than mixtures of medicated "booze" or doctored "dope." Per contra, I never heard of any "Patent" or "Quack" medicine which was an actual blood poison or the actual virus of some dangerous or deadly infection capable of infecting the patient with some fatal disease and of killing him in a few minutes, hours, days or weeks, as frequently happens with different forms of vaccination, as I have already demonstrated beyond doubt in these pages.

To this dangerously dominating vaccine sect of medicine, which sees the faults of other men but not its own great errors, we may therefore now apply the crushing words of Christ in His great parable of the beam and the mote, as follows:

"And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?"
"Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye."

Yes, Mr. President, if this powerfully organized and dom­inating sect of medicine, which now has such a dangerous power in our body politic, will cast out the blinding "beams" of compulsory medicine, inflicted disease and medical falsification out of its mental eyes it may then be able to see clearly to cast out the relatively harmless medical "motes' out of the eyes of our fellow men. But I am afraid that we cannot rely on this Profession to correct its own great faults unaided, or that, like the old Pharisee, it will ever remove from its own eyes the blinding beams of medical self-righteousness, infallibility, domination, compulsion and falsification. It will undoubtedly require the logical common sense and moral sense of the laity to bring about this medical reform, as few creeds, professions or parties ever reform themselves from within, but generally by moral and logical force from without. Left to itself, the Profession would undoubtedly acknowledge and correct its present great errors of Bovine Vaccination, compulsion and falsification in due time, but this reform would probably not occur voluntarily for a century yet!—that is, in about one hundred years after we were all dead. Indeed, the record of History seems to show that it usually requires about a century for this most dogmatic and infallibilistic sect of medicine to correct any of its gigantic mis­takes. For instance: The awful mistake of smallpox inoculation was continued for over a century, endorsed by the highest medi­cal authorities as the only way to prevent smallpox, and yet it was finally abandoned and prohibited by public opinion and penal law as being one of the most dangerous and effective ways to propagate and multiply smallpox. And it was not till after this gigantic medical mistake was prohibited that natural small­pox began to seriously decline. In the same way the vile medical scheme of arm-to-arm vaccination continued for over half a century under the endorsement of a large part of the medical profession as a safe substitute for inoculation, and as perfectly harmless and effective, and yet it was ultimately condemned and abandoned as one of the vilest schemes ever devised for transmitting the most dangerous human and animal diseases from one person to another! Now I believe that the present medical evil of Compulsory Bovine Vaccination is worse than any of the former mistakes as involving the extensive diseasing of two classes of animals, cattle and mankind, and causing epi­demics of the most dangerous diseases in mankind and domestic animals which were not known under the former evil schemes of inpculation and arm-to-arm vaccination! We must not, therefore, now wait for a century more to allow the bovine vaccinators and compulsory doctors voluntarily to abandon and correct what is perhaps the greatest medical mistake in history, but we must bring about this reform at once, in our own day, by a proper exertion of the common sense and the moral sense of the laity in enacting new laws which will pro­hibit all medical compulsion and all propagated and inflicted disease, and which will also remove all vaccinating doctors from the head and control of our Departments of Health and Vital Statistics and put in their places able laymen, or men of neutral professions, who will do justice to all medical sects and schools and protect and enforce the legal rights of the people to Medical Freedom and Safety and to Medical and Statistical Truth.

The extensive propagation and coercive infliction of a danger­ous disease, under the false pretense that it is necessary for pub­lic good and is safe and harmless, is obviously in the nature of a gross medical malpractice and public crime which is against public policy and public health and should be abolished by Penal Law, just as Smallpox Inoculation was abolished nearly a century ago.

I have not the least doubt that the best doctors in all our present schools of medicine, including the allopathic, will hail the broad reform of Medical Freedom which I am here urging and which they will readily see will be a great benefit to Humanity and to the whole "Divine" Profession of Healing and will be the removal from it of something which the verdict of History will undoubtedly record as having been the greatest Ethical Disgrace on the whole Medical Profession. And as the abolish­ment of compulsory religion removed a great disgrace from the Clerical Profession in the past, so the abolishment of compul­sory medicine will remove a great disgrace from the Medical Profession of to-day. And the doctors will doubtless, in due time, regret that they were ever guilty of such a barbarism, as much as modern Churchmen now regret the similar barbarous mistake of their predecessors.

It is, therefore, to this great medical reform, Mr. President, that I now ask your careful attention and forceful help, so far as may lie within your power or may commend itself to your conscientious judgment; and 1 now briefly recapitulate the es­sential points in this much needed reform, as follows:

First: The abolishment of all compulsory vaccination in the Army and Navy, leaving vaccination free and voluntary with each man, as it now is in the English Army.
Second: The full pardon of all men condemned by Court-Martial for refusing compulsory vaccination.
Third: The thorough investigation of the propagation and distribution of inflicted diseases by vaccine factories and vac­cinating doctors, and the effect of this dangerous practice on the health and life of animals and mankind and its possible or actual relation to great human and animal epidemics, in­cluding epidemic Influenza and Pneumonia.
Fourth : To determine carefully the number of cases of sick­ness and death caused annually, directly or indirectly, by vaccinations of different kinds in the Army and Navy and in the civil population.
Fifth : To have all deaths caused by vaccination or other medi­cal operations reported truly every year by all Medical Boards and Boards of Health, and to have heavy penalties enacted for all wilful denials or concealments of such deaths in death certificates or other vital records and statistics.
Sixth: To have various schools of medicine represented on all Medical Boards and Boards of Health in order to prevent medical monopoly by any one school of medicine and to establish Medical Freedom for all schools, with greater benefit to the public service, thus promoting true medical progress and efficiency.
Seventh :To have able laymen or sanitary engineers or life in­surance statisticians at the head of all Departments of Health and Vital Statistics, with honest doctors under them, like the good system long in use in England.

In your Message to Congress, August 8, 1919, Mr. President, you expressed a very strong and interesting thought in con­demnation of all unjust} arbitrary and coercive forces in the body politic, and the necessity of suppressing them in the inter­est of human welfare. This thought applies most aptly in the present case against the evils of dominating, arbitrary and co­ercive Medicalism, and I am therefore very glad to quote it here as my closing sentence, where, it seems to me, it has the force of a whole chapter in the space of one small paragraph.

"The world has just destroyed the arbitrary force of a military Junta. It will live under no other. All that is arbitrary and coercive is in the discard. Those who seek to employ it will only prepare their own destruction."

Respectfully submitted,
Chas. M. Higgins.

Dated at 271 Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. Constitution Day, September 17, 1919.

American Association for Advancement of Science.
American Child Hygiene Association.
National Tuberculosis Association.
American Red Cross (Life Member).
American Medical Liberty League, Chicago.
Medical Liberty League, Boston.
Anti-Vaccination League of America, Philadelphia.
National Anti-Vaccination League, London.
American Civic Association.
National Security League.
Navy League of U. S.
Aerial League of America.
American Rights League.
League of Free Nations Association.
American Historical Society.
National Geographic Society.
National Municipal League.
National Association of Manufacturers.
Constitutional Liberty League, Philadelphia.
National Agricultural Society.
National Consumers' League.
Vigilance League, New York.
Public School Protective League.
Constitutional League of America.

Late President of The Anti-Vaccination League of America.
Born in Scotland, January 10, 1841.   Died at Bryn
Athyn, Pennsylvania, July 22, 1916.

BY A Philadelphia Friend

John Pitcairn, who became President of The Anti-Vaccination League of America when it was organized in Philadelphia, on October 21, 1908, was one of America's foremost men of affairs. He was born on January 10, 1841, at Johnstone near Paisley in Scotland. In 1846 his parents removed to the United States and settled in Allegheny City, now a part of Pittsburgh; and there he received an elementary education in the public schools. At the age of fourteen he began his business career in the office of the Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad, at Altoona. In subsequent years he became Assistant to the Superintendent of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, and As­sistant to the Superintendent of the Philadelphia Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, On February 22, 1861, he had charge of the train that conveyed Abraham Lincoln from Harrisburg to Philadelphia, on the way to the Presidential inaugural at Wash­ington; and when the Confederates invaded Pennsylvania before the Battle of Antietam he and his brother, Robert Pitcairn, were sent by Colonel Thomas A. Scott, then Assistant Secretary of War, to Chambersburg, to take charge of the train service for the Government. He afterward became Assistant Superintendent of the Middle Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and Superintendent of the Middle Division of the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad. He built the Imperial Refinery at Oil City; and while associated with H. L. Taylor & Company, then the largest producers of oil in America, was engaged in the production, refining and pipe line transportation of oil. He was also a member of the firm of Vandergrift, Pitcairn & Company, and, with Mr. Vandergrift, built and controlled the first pipe line for the utilization of natural gas for manufacturing purposes and controlled the Natural Gas Company, Limited.   In 1883, Mr. Pitcairn, in association with Captain John B. Ford and others, organized the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, of the Board of Directors of which he was the Chairman until 1897, when he purchased the interests of the Fords and became the President of the Company; this office he resigned in 1905, again becoming Chairman of the Board.   The capital was originally $600,000; this was increased at various times until it reached $2,750,000; later it became $ 10,000,000 and finally, $22,750,000, all representing real values.   Mr. Pitcairn was also President of the C. H. Wheeler Manufacturing Company, the Loyal Hanna Coal and Coke Company, and the Pittsburgh Valve and Fittings Company, and a Director of the Central National Bank of Philadelphia, the Columbia Chemical Company, the Michigan Chemical Company, the Natural Gas Company of West Virginia, and the Owosso Sugar Company.    In these important business connections and in many other fields of successful enterprise, he remained unremittingly active until the autumn of 1915, when he suffered an attack of pneumonia, from the after effects of which he died, at his residence, "Cairnwood," Bryn Athyn, Pa., on July 22, 1916.

During the last ten years of his life, Mr. Pitcairn was to a great extent the guiding spirit of the anti-vaccination movement in America. It would be impossible to chronicle his activities in its behalf without writing a voluminous history. In 1908 Mr. Pitcairn made possible by his liberality a National Anti-Vaccination Conference, which held its sessions in Griffith Hall, Philadelphia, on October 19, 20 and 21 of that year, and which led to the organization of The Anti-Vaccination League of America. To The Ladies Home Journal for May, 1910, he contributed an article on 'The Fallacy of Vaccination' which has reached several million readers. On December 1, 1911, he was appointed by Governor Tener a member of the Pennsylvania State Vaccination Commission, and in this capacity on March 12, 1913, he rendered his report, which is a clear, scholarly and readable contribution to the literature of anti-vaccination.

Mr. Pitcairn's personal attributes were the natural products of his Scotch ancestry, his vigorous constitution, and his training in the school of experience, matured by close association with many of the most eminent minds of his time, extensive travels, and broad culture. He had an innate love of freedom, and hatred of injustice and oppression; and these high qualities of his character were enlivened by a keen sense of humor and deepened by positive religious convictions. As a practical man, his faculties of perception were clear, his deductions were ac­curate, his judgment of values was correct, and he was constant in the pursuit of his purposes. But above all, he was a man of independence in thought, of moral courage in action, and magnetic and winning in his personality, so that it has been well said of him, as Sir Walter Scott said of Roderick,

"One blast upon his bugle horn Were worth a thousand men!'

The office of The Anti-Vaccination League of America is at 1420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Mr. Porter F. Cope, Secretary; Mr. C. Oscar Beasley, Vice-President.

The office of The National Anti-Vaccination League, London, is at 25 Denison House, Vauxhall Bridge Road, London, S. W. Miss L. Loat, Secretary.



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 1920

To the President:
This Illustrated Supplement is also specially addressed to the President, to illustrate and demonstrate the numerous facts stated in the preceding Petition and thus make the exposure of the Horrors, Falsehoods and Fatalities of Vaccination so complete and demonstrative that there can be no doubt that Public Right demands the immediate abolishment of all Com­pulsory Vaccination, wherever it exists, as a dangerous medical malpractice violating fundamental human rights.



By referring to the cut on this page it will be seen that the living calf or heifer is first bound down on a movable tilting table, and its belly is shaved and on the clean, tender skin of a most tender part one or two hundred cuts or scratches are then made, as shown, and into these cuts or scratches is rubbed some "seed virus," obtained directly or indirectly from human smallpox,

                             Fig 1.   How cattle are diseased and tortured and Vaccine Virus produced.

and other known or unknown human or animal infections. But just what infections this "seed virus" contains it seems impossible to find out, and it seems also that even the virus makers themselves either do not know definitely what they are using and making, or will not state. But they certainly should be com­pelled by law to disclose fully the exact nature and origin of their viruses, and to publish the same clearly and openly, and should also be rigidly bonded to the State and the National Government for all damages to animals or mankind caused by any disasters from their dangerous methods and products.

We can all now imagine, however, looking at the picture, Fig. 1, what must be the tortures and suffering of the vaccinated heifer with one or two hundred festering wounds on its belly, when we recall the great suffering often caused to a child with a single wound on its arm, and we can also imagine what must be the effect on the entire system of the heifer itself—the future milk giver—in being thus saturated by the septic poison from these multiple wounds, pustules or ulcers, and what may be the permanent constitutional effect on the animal in developing or fixing in it, perhaps for life, some of our most dangerous diseases, such as tuberculosis, to which the bovine species is most subject, and which it has been demonstrated is chiefly transmitted to man through the milk of the cow. See 25th Report of U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, 1908, page 109. Whatever the effects on the system of the heifer may be, it must be obvious, however, that to be thus saturated by the virus of most dangerous diseases in hundreds of wounds over a large part of its body certainly cannot be good, and it is obviously a most barbarous and revolting kind of medical art, to say the least, which thinks it must resort to such a wholesale method of diseasing domestic animals first and mankind afterwards with the idea of promoting general health; and how any one can conceive anything more barbarous or revolting and dangerous than this method, we fail to see.

Now after the calf has been inoculated as described, it is re­moved from the table and allowed to stand on its feet in its stall securely tied, and carefully fed and tended and allowed to re­main thus for about a week, with its one or two hundred fester­ing wounds gradually filling up with ulcerative or suppurative disease matter. At this stage the calf is now again strapped on the table for the collection of this accumulated disease matter.

This fresh disease matter usually contains the germs of many diseases known and unknown, including human smallpox and cowpox or "vaccinia" and sometimes other germs even much more dangerous and fatal than smallpox. This dangerous complex disease matter is now squeezed and scraped out (imagine the torture of the heifer as its one or two hundred wounds are successively scraped out!) and this horrible material is then mixed with glycerine in order to dilute it and make it go farther and more profitably, and also to kill many dangerous germs which the complex virus is known to contain, and to some of which, glycerine, in a certain percentage, is fatal, but is not fatal to the germ of smallpox or vaccinia which it is aimed to preserve in more or less virile condition. In addition to this mixing with glycerine the virus is also subjected to a number of other processes and tests, to endeavor to free it from all the dangerous and fatal disease germs which it is known or is likely to contain, except the smallpox germ, which is dangerous enough in itself. But it seems to be impossible always to free the virus from such "foreign" germs, or to guarantee that it will not produce at any time some dangerous or fatal result when inocu­lated into the body of child or adult in the operation of vaccination, as is proved by the two great epidemics of foot and mouth disease in cattle, in 1902 and 1908, and the many human deaths occurring after vaccinations reported every year throughout the country.

After the virus has been taken from the vaccinated calves, it has been the custom, in some cases, to free the diseased calves and let them mix with healthy herds, and in other cases the vac­cinated calves have been butchered and their carcasses sold for human food! Either of these methods of disposal of the diseased calves is obviously highly dangerous to animal and human health and life, but whether these dangerous practices are still used by any vaccine manufacturers or by any of our Health Departments having vaccine stables and laboratories we do not know; but this point should be carefully investigated by the Government and these dangerous practices suppressed wherever they still exist.

Every act of cowpox vaccination consists simply in making a wound, scratch or puncture on the human body and then rubbing or injecting into this wound a living or virulent disease virus of a more or less complex nature, usually containing the actual virus of human smallpox combined with animal cowpox and always the virus of pus infection or septicemia in one or more of its many forms.   Dr. M. J. Rosenau, one of the best authorities in the country on vaccine virus, in his recent work "Preventive Medicine and Hygiene" (1914), says on pages 6 and 7: "Vaccine Virus always contains bacteria.   There is no such thing as aseptic virus. . . . Staphylococci, streptococci, members of the hemorrhagic septicemic group, and, in a few instances, tetanus spores and the gas bacillus have been found in vaccine virus."

In Bulletin 12 of the U. S. Hygienic Laboratory, issued 1903, on "Impurities in Vaccine Virus," Dr. Rosenau tells us that "Vaccinia is a specific disease, the cause of which has not been determined. We are therefore working somewhat in the dark. We are compelled to vaccinate our patients with a virus containing micro-organisms other than those causing vaccinia."

Listen to these most significant admissions by one of the highest authorities on vaccine virus in the country—working in the dark with an undetermined disease! Compelled to vaccinate the people with a virus containing many different disease germs other than the one intended, which in itself is even yet undetermined and in the dark!

Does this look much like known, safe, certain and scientific medicine, or is it merely only dangerous experiment and guesswork with deadly infections on the human body?

To show that vaccination is authoritatively recognized as essentially equivalent to Pyaemia and Septicemia, I can cite the reports of the Registrar-General of England, which is the highest statistical authority in the English-speaking world, which acknowledge many vaccination deaths every year, and these deaths are now classified under a subhead of Pyaemia-Septicemia which is numbered 20 in the International List of Causes of Death, and the deaths under this general head are divided and classified as follows: Pyaemia, No. 20A; Septicemia, No. 20B; Vaccinia, No. 20C. Under this latter sub-head, more deaths of children are recorded from vaccination almost every year than from smallpox itself! See pages 23-24. See also "Causes of Death," issued by U. S. Census Bureau, 1913, page 56, No. 20, where vaccination is classed as a form of Purulent Infection and Septicemia.

In Fig. 2 annexed I now give a photograph of an ordinary "successful" or normal vaccination on the ninth day after in­oculation, showing the fully developed or pustular stage of a "mild" or "safe" type of vaccination from which no serious harm or "complication" is supposed to result.   It will be noted,

Fig. 2. Vaccination on the ninth day, showing a normal, ordinary or mild type. Note here that both the central sore or vaccine pustule and the sur­rounding inflammation or "areola" present, even in this mild or ordinary form, clearly a case of septicemic or pus infection or blood poisoning pure and simple.

however, that even this normal form of vaccination is a perfectly typical case of pus infection, septicemia or blood poisoning on a small or mild scale. The vaccination wound on the arm, as will be seen, takes the typical form of a large irregular pustule or small abscess about one inch in diameter, more or less, with a depressed center and raised margin like a smallpox

Fig. 3.   Vaccinal Ulcer.

pustule, and this pustule is full and tense with a collection of pus or suppurative disease matter which, of course, always con­tains the germs of pus infection, inflammation and suppuration in one or more varieties which usually include, as Dr. Rosenau has stated, the two most common and dangerous pus germs, known as the "staphylococcus" and the "streptococcus."  You will also note that around the big pustule there is a diffuse rash or inflammation known as the "areola" which goes more or less deep in the flesh and extends more or less over the arm accord­ing to the severity of the case, and is similar to or identical with Erysipelas. The extent and severity of both the pustule and the rash vary more or less in every case, but in strong and healthy persons not very susceptible to the vaccine poison the pustule and areola usually show no greater extent or severity than that seen in Fig. 2.    I will here state that this Fig. 2, as

Fig. 4.   Multiple Vaccinations spread by finger-nails.

well as the following Figs. 3, 4 and 6, are all taken by permission from "Acute Contagious Diseases," by Drs. Welch and Schamberg of Philadelphia, published by Lea Brothers in 1905, which is a high authority on pro-vaccination, and one of the most complete works on smallpox and vaccination published.

In Fig. 3 is shown a bad case of vaccination which takes the form of a spreading ulcer, showing a severe pus infection, being the exact condition required for lockjaw to develop if its germ is already within the body of the vaccinated person or if it gets into the wound in any way whatever from the surroundings of the person or from the vaccine virus itself. See on this point my special pamphlet "Vaccination and Lockjaw"; see also page 104 in this Supplement.

Fig. 4 gives the picture of a nurse having several vaccine pustules on the face caused by being scratched by a freshly vaccinated child, showing the virulently infectious nature of vaccination as being a septicemic or pus infection, pure and simple, which is not only highly dangerous in itself but in which the terrible lockjaw and other diseases find essential culture conditions for their deadly work when acting as double or "mixed infections."

Sometimes the vaccination sore spreads all over the body like a bad case of confluent smallpox, as shown in Fig. 5, which shows the case of a little English baby two months old who was killed, according to death certificate, in thirty-six days after vaccination by this form of general eruption which is known as "Generalized Vaccinia."  I have obtained this photograph from the parents of the child through my London Office, with the death certificate, and have been informed that the eruption on the covered parts of the body was even worse and more confluent than that on the exposed face and arm. The name of the child was Mona Stevenson, daughter of William Stevenson of Burnley, England, and the date of death was August 4, 1908.

In Fig. 6, also taken from the work of Drs. Welch and Schamberg, is shown the photograph of a vaccinated boy, illustrating a severe form of vaccination which is very common in susceptible children, In this case the pustule is not much different from Fig. 2, but the areola is very severe and like erysipelas and has spread over a large part of the arm and up to the shoulder, indicating a severe infection of the system with a more exten­sive and serious blood poisoning which is further aggravated by a bad rash of pimples which has broken out upon the face and about the mouth like the first form of the eruption in smallpox. This eruption may be in the form of papules, vesicles or pus­tules, or may go through the three forms successively, as in smallpox, or abort at any of these stages; and these eruptions,

Fig. 5. Photograph of a little English baby two months old, taken after death, killed by vaccination in thirty-six days. This is a very severe and frequent form of fatal vaccination known as "Generalized Vaccinia," where the vaccine sore spreads all over the body in a series of big confluent pus­tules very like confluent smallpox, being thus clearly an aggravated case of pus infection and septicemia.

Fig. 6. Vaccination on the tenth day, showing a severe type of infection in a little child. Note widespread inflammation over the arm at the "areola" around the vaccine pustule and the bad eruption on the face which sometimes spreads all over the body. This is, of course, a clear case of pus infection and septicemia in which lockjaw, meningitis, pneumonia, or other diseases may find their essential conditions for producing their deadly work in killing the child as a direct or indirect result of the vaccination and the double infection caused by it.

either of the pimples or the areola, may sometimes extend over a large part of or even over the entire body and quickly kill the child by general blood poisoning and exhaustion.   Where the external or skin eruptions are not very bad, however, the child usually recovers, with or without permanent constitutional injury.   The worst cases of vaccinal infection are not, however, those which have external skin eruptions but in which there is little or no indication externally of purulent infection, except possibly at the sore itself, and in which the suppuration or infection extends inwardly and attacks one or more of the internal organs and kills by general internal suppuration known as "Pyaemia" or "Septicemia," which may show itself by serious suppurations in lungs, bronchi, pleura, heart, brain or spine, or in the digestive or other organs.   Thus by its very extensiveness this blood poisoning may give to the falsifying vaccinator ample and plausible excuse to make a false and deceptive report on the death of the vaccinated child and to deny and conceal the primary responsibility of vaccination for the infection and death by reporting in death certificate or autopsy that the child died from one or other of the terminal diseases or results of the vaccine infection, such as "Pneumonia," "Broncho-Pneumonia," "Pleurisy," "Meningitis" or "Endocarditis," or even perhaps by some form of intestinal inflammation and obstruc­tion which, with a whole series of other complications, may of course also result from the vaccinal septicemia in its general riot of infection throughout the whole system.   And any one of these several consequent or terminal diseases can be plausibly set down by the falsifying vaccinist as the true and only cause of death, without any mention whatever of the original cause in the primary infection of the vaccination, which will thus be completely ignored and brazenly denied and concealed.   Such a death certificate or autopsy report concealing and denying the original infection of vaccination is, sad to say, very common, and is, of course, just about as true and honest and acceptable as if some murderer should report on his own homicidal act that the bullet which he shot into the victim's body did not really kill the victim, but that it was purely the stoppage of the man's defective heart that actually killed him! Or, to give another example, that if was the fatal infection of lockjaw which the careless victim himself, or his careless nurse, allowed to get into the harmless bullet wound, that was really responsible for the death and not the innocent bullet that was fired into the victim's body!

The diseases which have been found or proved to exist in vaccine virus are as follows:

First: Tetanus or Lockjaw, one of the most deadly and rapid in its action. For instances of Lockjaw germs in vaccine virus, see Journal Medical Research, Boston, Mass., May, 1902. See also page 105 in this Supplement, which shows how vaccination can cause Lockjaw, whether the germs are in the virus or not.

Second: Different forms of the germs of "Sepsis" which produce the dangerous and often fatal festering sores, abscesses and ulcers of different kinds. See Bulletin 12, U. S. Hygienic Lab­oratory, 1903.

Third: Actinomycosis or "Lumpy Jaw." This produces a terrible festering tumor in the bones or tissues of the head, brain, or spine, something like the effects of either Cancer, Tuberculosis, or Meningitis, and may be confounded therewith; and its germs have often been found in vaccine virus. See Journal Medical Research, Boston, Mass., January, 1904.

Fourth: Infantile Paralysis. There is strong evidence that this mysterious and most fatal disease may also sometimes be caused by vaccination, as a direct or indirect result. See pages 145 to 162 herein taken from Mr. Loyster's Pamphlet. See also page 13 in the English translation of a German work on Paralysis by Dr. Oskar Vulpius (Wm. Wood & Co., New York, 1912), which admits that vaccination is one of the causes of Infantile Paralysis.

Fifth and Sixth: Tuberculosis and Cancer. There has been a strong conviction growing for some years past among close students of vaccination, both within and without the medical profession, that the practice of widespread inoculation of the population with known and unknown ulcerative diseases or pus infections such as found in vaccine virus is probably responsible for the great increase in two of the worst and most fatal ulcerative diseases of modern times, viz., Tuberculosis and Cancer. The former causes about fourteen thousand deaths every year in New York State, and the latter about eight thousand deaths, regularly and steadily every year, compared to which the few annual deaths from smallpox are a mere bagatelle or like a microscopic fleabite on the mortality lists.

There has long been supposed to be some relation between Cancer and vaccination, because the same microbial germ or form has been found in the virus or lesions of both diseases, and also in smallpox and syphilis, known as "vaccine bodies." See the Report of the N. Y. State Cancer Laboratory for 1902 and 1903, pages 10 and 78. Another reason for this supposed relationship is that these two of our most terrible and fatal diseases seem to have increased steadily since the introduction of inoculation and vaccination and are now common in countries which are most vaccinated, such as Japan and Germany. I will give a striking example of this fact here, in one instance which will suffice for the present, viz.: In Japan, which is one of the most extensively vaccinated countries in the world, there is one of the highest death-rates from Tuberculosis known, whereas in our own State of Utah, where all compulsory vaccination is pro­hibited by a State law, there is the lowest death-rate from tuberculosis in the United States! See U. S. Mortality Statistics, 1913, page 28. So important has this subject been getting for some years past that many investigators are now studying it and a prominent magazine has been considering the publication of a series of articles by some eminent doctors to show the relationship or influence of vaccination on cancer and tuberculosis, which some of these doctors claim to have already demonstrated.

Compulsory vaccination has been most rigid on the whole population in Germany and Japan for many years past, and it has long been known that Germany, like Japan, has had a very high death-rate from tuberculosis, which has been much increased since the Great War. Count von Brockdorff Rantzau, head of the German Peace Delegation, acknowledged this grim fact after receiving a copy of the Peace Treaty at Versailles on May 7, 1919, by saying: "Germany now is the home of tuber­culosis." This significant fact is reported in the New York Herald of May 8, 1919.

The influence of vaccination in causing, aggravating or increasing tuberculosis and other diseases is now well recognized by high medical authorities. For example: In one of the most recent medical works it is distinctly admitted that vaccination influences or aggravates other diseases, and that "a quiescent malady may be lighted into activity by vaccination." And it is also here stated that this activating effect of vaccination occurs particularly in syphilis and in tuberculosis, two of the most common and dangerous diseases of the human race! See Osier's "Principles and Practice of Medicine/' 8th Edition, 1918, page 330. This is, surely, a tremendous admission of the very dan­gerous effects of vaccination from one of the latest and highest medical authorities of to-day, and is sufficient, in itself, to con­demn all compulsory vaccination.

Seventh : Foot and Mouth Disease of Cattle. This disease is a form of "cowpox" and has been frequently transmitted by vaccination to both man and beast, and, most horrible to say, it is notorious that the great epidemics of this terrible cow disease in 1902 and 1908 were caused by the manufacture of vaccine virus, and the last or greatest of these epidemics, of 1914 and 1915, is believed also to be due to vaccination, although not yet clearly proved. See Year Book of U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1914, page 20. See also reports of U. S. Bureau of Animal Indus­try for 1902 and 1908. These several epidemics have caused the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of cattle and other domestic animals, at a loss of many millions of dollars to the Govern­ment and people of the United States.

Fig. 7.   Cow suffering from Foot and Mouth Disease caused by Vaccination.

Fig. 7 shows a cow suffering with foot and mouth disease, which is a kind of virulent cowpox, very infectious and contagious, conveyed by vaccination, and transmissible to man and beast. Note the badly ulcerated and dribbling mouth of the cow. Ulcerations also affect the feet, and eruptions of vesicles break out in successive crops on different parts of the body, particularly on teats and udder, on lips and nostrils, and in the mouth and throat. This picture is taken from the Report of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry for 1902, on the bad epidemic in the New England States in that year, where, in several in­stances, this dangerous cow disease was conveyed to human subjects through vaccination, resulting in horrible eruptions and agonizing death, as I will show further on at pages 110 and 112.

Fig. 8 is taken from the same Report for 1902 previously mentioned and shows a yoke of oxen suffering with the foot and mouth disease and ready to be killed and buried to suppress the infection. Note the sore and gaping mouths of the oxen and their sore and swollen feet. They are shown standing in the bottom of a deep trench into which they have been driven and where they will be shot; their bodies will then be covered with quicklime and finally buried under six feet of earth to destroy the infection.

Fig. 8 1/2 is a view of the hind quarters of a cow suffering with foot and mouth disease and showing the udder and teats with the characteristic eruption of this disease. Compare this eruption with the human eruptions in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 11, 12 and 13. This illustration is taken from Farmers' Bulletin No. 666, on the foot and mouth disease, issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1915. Fig. 9 shows the awful "Vaccine Holocaust." See page 96.

Fig. 10 shows a map of the second epidemic of foot and mouth disease in 1908, taken from the Report of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry for 1908.   The shaded counties in the

Fig 8. Oxen with Foot and Mouth Disease caused by Vaccination

Fig. 8 1/2   Udder and teats of a cow affected with Foot and Mouth Disease. Note characteristic eruptions on teats.

four States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland show where the epidemic of that year spread and how it originated and travelled. This epidemic was caused by manufacturers of vaccine virus and originated from the virus of two large American manufacturers, one in Detroit, the other in Philadelphia. This strain of virus is said to have come originally from Japan, the much vaccinated country, and contained the infection of foot and mouth disease, and it was used apparently for years without any knowledge that it carried this dangerous disease, which was probably conveyed to many vaccinated children and adults in that time with a horrible eruptive effect in many cases,—how many will never be known. This infection of the vaccine virus was not known or discovered until 1908 because the Philadelphia company killed their calves after getting the virus from them and thus prevented the vaccinated calves from mixing with and infecting healthy cattle, but confined the infection to vaccinated human beings.   In 1908, how-

                          Fig 9.  The Vaccine Holocaust.  Look at this picture and read the next page.

From Pamphlet "Open  Your Eyes" by Chas. M. Higgins
The photograph on preceding page is taken from the Report of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry for 1902 on the great epidemic of Cattle Plague, or Foot and Mouth Disease, in Massachusetts in 1902, caused by vaccine virus, which cost the U. S. Government $130,000 to suppress and caused the slaughter of 4316 animals. In this impressive picture you will note the bodies of hundreds of cattle resting on a pile of firewood in a trench on the snow covered ground ready for burning to destroy the infection caused by the vaccine virus. Look carefully, as the picture is much reduced, and you will see a man at the left in the trench setting fire to the pile. Note the horns, heads, and hoofs of the cattle bristling from all sides of the funeral pile. Soon you will see the smoke of sacrifice rise from these victims of vaccination on the altar of Medical Barbarism—a Holocaust to the Demon Vaccine!
    In 1908 there was a second epidemic of the same disease which raged in several States, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Maryland and New York, caused by the vaccine virus used by two of the largest manufacturers of vaccine virus in the United States. (See Report of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry for 1008.) In this second epidemic 3,636 animals were slaughtered at a cost to the U. S. Government of $300,000. In both epidemics there occurred outbreaks of similar disease among vaccinated persons in the infected States, from which many deaths resulted. What do you now think of any medical scheme for the alleged benefit of "public health" which is capable of causing such disasters to animal and human life as this peculiar and extraordinary scheme of bovine vaccination? Do you think, Mr. President, that any medical device capable of causing such disasters should be made compulsory by law, in our Army or Navy, on our public school children or on any one else in any shape or form? And do you not think that all compulsion should be now abolished and Medical Freedom from inflicted disease established as an absolute American and Hygienic Right?

Fig 10

ever, the Detroit company got some of this "seed virus" from the Philadelphia company to "strengthen" their product. The Detroit method was not to finally kill the vaccinated calves, but to hire unvaccinated calves from farmers or stock dealers and after they were infected, and the virus taken from them, to return the calves to the farmers or stockmen, where they thus mixed with healthy cattle which were afterwards shipped to different States and thus spread the great plague of foot and mouth disease in that year, as shown by the official map annexed and by the official reports cited below.

For expert proof that vaccination is responsible for epidemics of Foot and Mouth Disease, see the annual reports of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, already cited, for 1902 and 1908, and also the Year Book of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1914, page 21. See also Farmers' Bulletin No. 666 issued by the Department of Agriculture. See particularly the first official report on the epidemics of Foot and Mouth Disease in 1902 and 1908, issued by the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry. This first report is not now in print but is on record in the Bureau and it was first given to the press and released for publication on May 17, 1909; and from a copy of this report obtained from the said Bureau, I now give the following extracts which will clearly show that it was the vaccine virus used by two of our largest manufacturers of virus in the United States that was responsible for causing the epidemic of foot and mouth disease in 1908, and was also probably the cause of the previous epidemic of the same disease in 1902 and 1903.



"The recent outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland started from calves used in the propagation of smallpox vaccine virus which had been contaminated with the virus of foot and mouth disease, and the contaminated strain of vaccine originally came from a foreign country.

'The main facts regarding the outbreak ... are as follows: The H. K. Mulford Company of Glen Olden, Pa., imported certain smallpox vaccine virus which was contaminated with the infection of foot and mouth disease. In May, 1908, some vaccine of this strain was procured by Parke, Davis & Go. of Detroit. Calves used by the latter firm in propagating vaccine were sent, October 16, to the Detroit stock yards and thence on the same day to a farm near Detroit. On October 20, three carloads of cattle from points in Michigan reached the Detroit stock yards and were put into the pens that had been occupied by the vaccine calves four days previously. Some were sold for slaughter at Detroit, while the remainder were shipped to Buffalo and some were reshipped to Danville and Watsontown, Pa., where the disease was first observed some days later. The disease spread to various places in Pennsylvania and New York and to one locality in Maryland.   [See Map, page 98.]

'Three separate series of experiments were made by Doctors Mohler and Rosenau. Young cattle and sheep were inoculated with vaccine virus obtained from both firms. Foot and mouth disease was produced in experimental animals by the use of vac­cine of the same strain obtained from both sources, while other strains of vaccine tested gave negative results. The disease was also transmitted from one animal to another through several series, in two instances by natural' modes of infection.

'The investigation also indicates that the outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in New England in 1902-3 were probably due to contaminated vaccine of Japanese origin from the Mulford Company. . . .

'The fact that the infection was present in the vaccine virus of the Mulford Company for so long a period, but was not transmitted to outside cattle, was doubtless due to this firm's practice of killing its calves after taking the vaccine virus. Parke, Davis & Co., on the other hand, rented their calves and placed them again on the market a short time after the vaccine material was taken. In this way the disease spread from the vaccine stables of Parke, Davis & Co., but not from those of the Mulford Company, although it was the vaccine virus from the latter establishment that infected the former's cattle. . . .

"As soon as the facts regarding the contamination of vaccine became known, the licenses of the two firms involved were at once suspended, all the suspected vaccine virus on hand was de­stroyed and that upon the market withdrawn, and other meas­ures of a radical nature were taken. The report commends the intelligent and prompt cooperation of the Mulford Company and Parke, Davis & Co. in accomplishing this end. After an examination of every strain of vaccine upon the market, it is stated that there is now (1909) upon the market no vaccine contaminated with the virus of foot and mouth disease. Regulations have been formulated with a view to preventing here­after the propagation of contaminated vaccine virus. No instance of the transmission of foot and mouth disease to man through vaccine virus has been recorded, and it is considered doubtful, in view of the tests made, if it is possible to reproduce the disease in him by the cutaneous inoculation commonly used in the process of vaccination. ..."

It will be noted that in the official report just quoted there is no question of the responsibility of vaccine virus for causing the deadly plague of foot and mouth disease in cattle and other domestic animals and that two or more extensive and deadly epidemics in animals have been thus caused by the virus of certain manufacturers, involving the destruction of thousands of animals and the loss of millions of dollars to the Government and people of the United States! It will also be noted, however, that at the end of this report there is a guarded or tentative statement that no instance of the transmission of foot and mouth disease to human subjects by vaccination is known or "has been recorded"; and that there is some doubt that this disease can be conveyed to man by skin inoculation only, as in vaccination, although it is clear that it can be and has been surely conveyed to domestic animals by such inoculation! It is admitted in later reports that the disease can be conveyed to animals or man by ordinary skin inoculation or scarification provided some blood is drawn in the operation, which is, of course, a common occurrence in ordinary vaccination. This rather doubtful statement as to infection in man by ordinary vaccination I will therefore prove to be an evident error and will give, further on, the most convincing proof that foot and mouth disease—or what is in every way equivalent to and iden­tical with it—is frequently conveyed to mankind by vaccination, with fatal effect!

To suppress the epidemic of 1902, as already shown, 4,316 animals were slaughtered by the U. S. Government at a cost of $130,000; and in the epidemic of 1908 the Government slaughtered 3,636 animals at a cost of $300,000. The last or recent epidemic, which has been the worst of all, extended from 1914 to 1916, invaded twenty-three States and involved the destruction of 172,222 animals, chiefly swine, cattle and sheep, in the order stated. The cost of this destruction amounted to a loss of over nine millions of dollars, half of which was paid by the National Government and half by the States! See the report of the Chief of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry for 1916. This is surely a big price to pay for vaccination, which was most probably the cause of this last and greatest epidemic, as it was proved to be the cause of the previous epidemics of 1908 and 1902! And at this point it should be remembered that this last epidemic of 1914 to 1916 originated in the same State of Michigan where one of the largest vaccine factories in the country is located and from which factory the epidemic of 1908 was proved to have originated!

An interesting and significant fact in relation to the epidemic of 1908 is that the lake counties of New York where the foot and mouth disease prevailed in 1908, as shown on the map in Fig. 10, are the same counties where the greatest outbreaks of smallpox occurred in 1913 and 1914, and may possibly have had some relation to the previous epidemic of virulent cowpox or foot and mouth disease in 1908 and to the last epidemic of this disease in 1914 to 1916. This point seems to be worthy of careful investigation, to say the least, because I am convinced that so-called "Foot and Mouth Disease" may be really a virulent form of "Cowpox" or a mongrel form of smallpox and may sometimes convey to mankind what may actually be, or be mistaken for, a mild form of smallpox, such as prevailed in the lake counties of New York in 1914, including the City of Niagara Falls.

Now these epidemics of foot and mouth disease in cattle seem to be no uncommon thing, and, what is very significant, they seem to be very common, severe, and almost constant in countries where vaccination is very extensive and rigid, such as in Germany and also in Japan, where German ideas have been copied and where, of course, the cattle are extensively diseased to produce this vile disease stuff, known as vaccine virus; and it must be here noted that it was from much vaccinated Japan that the seed virus came which caused our great epidemics of 1902 and 1908.

The Report of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1908, page 381, shows that in one year, in Germany alone, over 800,000 cattle and other animals were infected by Foot and Mouth Disease. And it seems probable that this extensive infection of cattle may have come originally from the general and wide­spread vaccination used in Germany.

Now so far as we know the parties responsible for causing the great damage in our two great epidemics of foot and mouth disease have as yet made no legal recompense to the National or State Governments, or to the private individuals aggrieved, for which damage they would appear to be clearly liable.

Consider for a moment the audacious recklessness and negligence in infecting cattle in hundreds of wounds on the body with a most infectious disease, or combination of diseases, commonly and falsely represented as harmless, and afterwards turning these dangerously infected animals loose among healthy herds! But this is only one of the audacious acts and dangerous results against public right, health, and safety occurring constantly from the deadly medical barbarism of compulsory vaccination, which the Government would do well to investigate and correct immediately. And the best way to begin this correction is to ABOLISH ALL COMPULSORY VACCINATION.

I will show further on how foot and mouth disease is fre­quently conveyed to mankind by vaccination, with awful and fatal effects, but in the meantime I will first show how deaths from lockjaw are one of the most common and fatal results of vaccination.

This dreadful and most fatal disease known as "Tetanus" or Lockjaw is such a common result of vaccination, and the consequential and responsible relation of vaccination thereto is so shamefully denied and concealed by vaccinators, that a special chapter seems to be necessary here to give the real truth on this important point.

In my previous pamphlet "Vaccination and Lockjaw" I have treated this subject exhaustively and now refer thereto for full facts and authorities, but I will give an outline of the subject here which will cover the main facts in the case.

One of the most common and false defences of the vaccinators on this point is the shameful fallacy and falsehood that if the lockjaw germs are not found in the virus itself, therefore vaccination with this virus cannot cause lockjaw in the vaccinated person or be held responsible for it. This is, substantially, the logic or implication in one of our latest Government reports on this subject by Dr. J. F. Anderson, entitled "Post Vaccination Tetanus," which title means in plain English, Lockjaw after Vaccination, published in the U. S. Health Reports of July 16, 1915.

In this report the author, who is an expert on vaccines, practically excuses vaccination for all blame for lockjaw deaths where the lockjaw germs do not exist, or cannot be proved to exist in the vaccine virus itself! . . . After making this half truthful and misleading report favorable to vaccination, the author, according to the statement of a Washington newspaper, resigned from the employ of the U. S. Government at a salary reported as $4,500 per year and entered the employ of one of the biggest manufacturers of vaccine virus and serums in the country at the alleged enormous salary of $25,000 per year!

For a more truthful and accurate report showing how lockjaw germs are widely diffused and how they absolutely depend on a pus infection, like the vaccination sore, or its equivalent, for their "activation" and fatal effects, as now explained here, see Studies of Dr. Francis, in Bulletin No. 95, U. S. Hygienic Laboratory, August, 1914.

The real truth in this matter is, therefore, that there are at least four distinct ways in which vaccination can cause death from lockjaw:

First: The lockjaw germs may be in the virus itself and be inoculated directly into the vaccination wound at the moment of vaccination. And, despite Dr. Anderson's negative tests, the possibility of this direct infection can exist at any time, as admitted by some of our best authorities, already quoted, on account of the many ways in which the infection can enter the virus, from the vaccinated calf itself and otherwise, and also because its presence cannot always be proved by tests, although known to be in the virus. The lockjaw germ normally dwells in and issues from the digestive organs of domestic animals and is therefore found in manure and garden soil and on the hide and hair of animals and hence may be in the body of the vaccinated calf itself from which the virus is produced!

Second: The lockjaw germ, which is widely distributed in some localities, may exist on the person of the vaccinator or the vaccinated at the time of vaccination and be then introduced into the wound with the virus, and the two infections may thus develop together, the pus infection in the wound being necessary to "activate" the lockjaw germs as already shown.

Third: The lockjaw germ may enter the vaccination wound and grow in its pus secretion at any time during its suppurating stage by chance scratching, abrasion or absorption, and thus develop its awful toxin with fatal effect on the vaccinated victim.

Fourth: The lockjaw germ may already exist within the body when the vaccination is performed, and is known to frequently exist as a natural tenant or denizen of the healthy human body, in nearly one-quarter of the human race! This is also the case with several other disease germs. In such cases the indwelling lockjaw germ will remain entirely inert, dormant and harmless in the body unless some condition necessary to its "activation" or growth is presented, such as that of a suppurating sore, ulcer, abscess or wound, anywhere within or upon the body, the pus-infected or suppurating vaccination sore being, of course, the ideal condition for the activation and growth of the fatal lock­jaw infection, as already shown; and this is probably the most common and dangerous way in which vaccination can cause death from lockjaw and other diseases, and the greatest care in the preparation of the virus itself cannot avoid this danger!

It will therefore be seen that in every one of these instances the vaccination wound or sore itself is the essential cause or condition of the lockjaw infection, which could not or would not exist without this condition, or its equivalent, and hence it is nothing but a dastardly evasion and perversion of medical truth and honesty to try to show that, because the lockjaw germ is not in the virus at the moment of vaccination, or that it gets into the wound afterwards through some natural chance or con­dition to which the human body is constantly subjected, there­fore the act of vaccination is not responsible for the resulting death from lockjaw.

It is time, therefore, that this outrageously dishonest medical quibble as to the exact source of infection in vaccinal lockjaw was silenced once for all. What difference does it make to the victim of this terribly fatal disease whether the lockjaw germ was in the virus itself or in or on the victim's own body, when in either case the act of vaccination, per se and ab initio, is the cause of the infection becoming active and fatal in the human body? A logic which would contend otherwise would free the assassins of Presidents Garfield and McKinley from the charge of murder because, forsooth, the fatal septic infection which killed these victims was not on the murderous bullets when they were fired into their bodies, but entered the wounds afterwards through their own carelessness! This is exactly the false and murderous logic that is constantly used by our well-paid professional apologists for vaccination and by their abject dupes, our befooled editors, who brazenly or ignorantly use it in defense of this gross medical malpractice of forcing a most dangerous form of disease and blood infection on healthy and helpless children and adults, which a great English doctor, James J. Garth Wilkinson, so truly calls the "Assassination of the Blood" in the following glowing words, written many years ago, but which convey a stinging rebuke to men of his own great profession in this matter to-day: "This is blood assassination, and like a murderer's life. The point, however, here is that this amazing act is the homicidal insanity of a whole profession." See "On Human Science, Good and Evil," Lippincott, Phila., 1876, page 35.

As a matter of cold fact, therefore, these "Assassins of the Blood," vaccination and lockjaw, offer a far greater risk and danger to human health and life than natural smallpox itself, and if we should fear anything for ourselves or our children it should be vaccination and lockjaw instead of smallpox, of which we stand in far less danger than of being struck by light­ning, whereas lockjaw is a steady and constant danger thirty times greater than smallpox, as the following comparative list of deaths from Smallpox, Lightning and Lockjaw in the State of New York will readily show. This list is taken from the reports of our State Department of Health for the seven years from 1910 to 1916, as follows:

                             Smallpox         Lightning            Lockjaw
1910....................      7 deaths      16    deaths       94 deaths
1911......................... 3     "           30       "           114     "
1912........................  4     "           21    "                 97     "
1913........................   1      "         13     "               111      "
1914........................  3      "          33      "              115      "
1915......................... 0     "           18     "                 90     "
1916........................ 3      "           19     "                 69     "
Totals  ...........          21               150                      690

It will be noted that the ordinary danger from smallpox is so actually and relatively insignificant here that it is regularly six to eight times less than that of being struck by lightning, and that the danger from lockjaw of all kinds is so great and constant that it is about thirty times greater than that from small­pox, whereas vaccinal lockjaw, which is about ten per cent, of all lockjaw deaths, is at least three times more dangerous by actual frequency of occurrence than natural smallpox!

I have already exposed the deadly epidemics of virulent cowpox or foot and mouth disease in cattle and domestic animals caused by vaccination. I now come to expose one of the most shocking results of vaccination yet disclosed, viz.: the transmission of this horrible cow disease to the human subject. This disease, as a vaccinal result, in mankind, is much more common and fatal than has been generally supposed, and every effort seems to have been made by our vaccinators and health officers to deny and conceal the facts in this matter from the public, which is easily accomplished because of the great general ignorance of all vaccination matters not only by the mass of the people but by the mass of the medical profession itself. For example, the medical profession does not seem to be yet aware of the fact that the severe skin and general disease called "Pemphigus" in man is identical with foot and mouth disease in cattle, nor do they seem to be generally aware of the fact that "Pemphigus" is frequently conveyed by "Cowpox" or vaccination, and they seem to be equally ignorant of the notorious fact that certain makes of vaccine virus had been infected for years with foot and mouth disease, and conveyed this disease in epidemic and fatal form to animals and mankind. Neither do they seem to be aware of the fact that experience now indicates that Foot and Mouth disease may be ultimately proved to be only a virulent form of "Cowpox" or a mongrel form of Smallpox to which or­dinary Cowpox or "Vaccinia" may degenerate at any time like a mild domestic dog suddenly changing, in an attack of Rabies, to a mad, dangerous, and deadly distributor of disease.

To show that the close relation, if not the identity, of vaccination with Smallpox and Foot and Mouth Disease is now recognized by special students of this subject, 1 may here quote from the speech of Senator Money of Mississippi in the U. S. Senate, February 25, 1909, as reported in the Congressional Record, in the debate on the Agricultural Appropriation Bill, concerning the epidemic of Foot and Mouth Disease in 1908, as follows:

"This is an important question with respect to cattle, but it is very much more important to the human beings of this country. These vaccine points are the things with which we vaccinate the children of this country against smallpox. It has been found that it sometimes makes them immune from smallpox, but gives them the foot-and-mouth disease, which is just about as bad.
"The trouble about the matter is that we can not in the United States produce vaccine for any length of time, for the reason that this is not a pox country. It is not the home of the disease.   We have to import it from abroad, and consesequently the vaccine points that are produced upon the spot which is the habitat of this particular disease are the only ones that will retain the virus in sufficient strength to enable it to render the human being vaccinated immune from small­pox. Consequently we can not, as has been expected by a great many people, raise our own vaccine points, because they lose their power for immunity against smallpox. We now run the constant danger that has been manifested very unpleasantly in several localities of vaccinating children and grown people with these imported vaccine points and communicating the foot-and-mouth disease, which is just about as bad as the smallpox."

Fig. 11  Horrible Case of Cowpox in a Woman.
Epidemic of 1902. Back view of a woman suffering from Foot and Mouth Disease, or Virulent Cowpox, caused by Vaccination. Photograph shows final stages of eruption and was taken a short while before death. Note large blotches all over body caused by several vesicles running together, then breaking and excoriating, leaving large raw sores like big scalds or burns.

We will now show in the following pages and illustrations how Foot and Mouth Disease is conveyed to mankind in vaccination and that it is not only as bad as smallpox, as Senator Money has stated, but much worse.

Figs, 11 and 12 show some horrible examples of this deadly cattle plague conveyed by vaccination to human subjects. Fig. 11 shows the back view of a woman victim with a very severe and fatal type of this disease, the photograph being taken a short while before death. I have also a front view of this case, taken after death, but this is too horrible for even this chapter of horrors, so that I have decided to spare the feelings of my readers and not show it here. Fig. 12 is a photograph giving both front and back views of a man with a very bad, but less severe, type of the disease, who recovered after several successive eruptions and about five months of suffering.

There were ten cases of this kind treated at the Boston City Hospital in January, 1902, by Dr. James S. Howe, who read a report of the cases before a meeting of the American Dermatological Association in Boston in September, 1902, which was afterwards published in the Journal of Cutaneous Diseases for January and June, 1903, from which I quote below. Dr. Howe exhibited photographs of these cases at the meeting referred to, which also appeared in said Journal here quoted, copies of some of which are now shown in Figs. 11 and 12.

Fig. 12.   Foot and Mouth Disease in a Vaccinated Man.
Epidemic of 1902. Back and front views of man suffering with Foot and Mouth Disease, or Virulent Cowpox, caused by Vaccina­tion. Photograph shows early or mid stage of eruptions, which first appeared four and a half weeks after vaccination. Recovered after nine successive eruptions of this kind in five months after vaccination. Note "umbilicated" form of eruptions like vaccination sores, proving positive relation to Vaccination and Smallpox. Compare with Figs. 2, 4 and 6.

These cases and the published report of them are also cited in the medical work before quoted, "Acute Contagious Diseases," on page 82 therein, so that there is full medical authority for their citation here and ample proof of their nature and origin as being due to vaccination.

Dr. Howe reported that out of the ten cases of this kind treated in the hospital six were fatal, thus showing the deadly nature of this vaccinal disease, which greatly exceeds the average or worst types of smallpox! In Dr. Howe's report of these cases, at the meeting referred to, he stated as follows:

"Early in January of the present year [1902], while the wave of vaccination was at its full height [during a smallpox epidemic], there were received in the Boston City Hospital for treatment, a remarkable series of cases of bullous dermatitis. All of these cases appeared in persons recently vaccinated. . . . The longest duration of the disease in any one case was sixteen weeks, followed by recovery, and the shortest was one week, followed by death. The skin lesions began to appear in these cases in an average of five weeks after vac­cination, sixteen weeks having elapsed in one case, the longest, and three weeks in one case, the shortest."

It may be proper to state just here that the "skin lesions" and other eruptions in these human cases were substantially or identically the same as in the cattle affected with foot and mouth disease in the epidemic of 1902 and 1908 previously described, these eruptions being of the same kind and in the same locations; that is, the eruptions consisted of numerous vesicles of various sizes, from the size of a pea to that of a dime, half dollar and dollar, and these vesicles broke out all over the body as shown in Figs. 11 and 12, but particularly on feet and hands, lips and nostrils and inside the mouth and throat, and in fact on and in all interior parts of the body covered by mucous mem­brane, as well as on the external skin, and sometimes in internal organs. These vesicles would sometimes change to pustules or semi-pustules as shown in Fig. 12, and these would spread and run together into large confluent vesicles or blisters, as shown in Fig. 11, and these blisters would then rupture, collapse, drain and excoriate, leaving great raw sores like terrible scalds or burns, as shown in the big black and gray blotches in Fig. 11, thus causing great suffering and agony in this most pitiable victim of vaccination. The victim in Fig. 11 was a woman forty years old, who died ten hours after admission to the hospital and six weeks after vaccination, and in whom the eruptions first appeared three weeks after vaccination. Fig. 12 shows the eruptions in their early or mid stage, and Fig. 11 shows them in their later or final stage. And it must be here understood that these eruptions appear in successive crops, as in the cattle disease, one crop disappearing and healing, to be followed by another crop in a few days, and these ten cases of Dr. Howe had from two or three to nine successive eruptions before death or recovery! The case shown in Fig. 12 is that of a man twenty-one years old in whom the first eruption appeared four and a half weeks after vaccination and who had nine successive eruptions before he finally recovered and was discharged from the hospital about five months after vaccination!

Dr. Howe gave it as his opinion that the disease in these ten cases was caused by some infection in the vaccine virus at the time of vaccination, and a majority of the doctors present at the meeting seemed to agree with him and gave several instances where similar cases happened in their own practice, thus showing that this disease is really a common result of vaccination. One of the doctors then present, Louis H. Duhring of Philadelphia, an expert on skin diseases, said:

"We must grant, I think, in the light of the history of these cases and what we know of other similar cases, that they are the direct or indirect result of vaccination. While we hear a good deal, pro and con, about vaccination, of its injurious results on the part of those who are opposed to it, and of its value on the part of those who favor it, I have always felt that those who are opposed to vaccination, or, rather, those who have brought forward the possible ill effects of vaccination, did not in some instances have a fair hearing.   I, myself, have seen cases at least similar to the ones reported by Dr. Howe, as well as others, where the local and constitutional manifestations were undoubtedly the result of vaccination."

Dr. Howe seemed to be somewhat mystified by the disease and at a loss for the best or most proper technical name for it, and on this head he stated as follows:

"On the other hand, it might seem more proper to call them, perhaps, cases of pemphigus. Quoting Duhring in regard to pemphigus, I will refer to the following: The mucous membranes of the mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, trachea, bronchi and even of the alimentary canal are not infrequently invaded, especially in the varieties malignus and vegetanus, giving rise to various local lesions, mostly whitish patches and excoriations. In grave cases there are pain and difficulty in breathing and swallowing, diarrhea, exhaustion, collapse, and a fatal ending.' These cases of mine certainly showed all these symptoms."

In answer to this point, Dr. Duhring then said:

"I think Dr. Howe has acted wisely in selecting the title he has and connecting it with vaccination, because it is to that point that we wish to call attention, namely, that instances of bullous dermatitis, often severe and even running a fatal course, do at times follow vaccination. . . . That it is closely allied to what is known as semi-malignant or malignant pemphigus, I think probable, but whether we call it bullous dermatitis from vaccination, or pemphigus from vaccination, or malignant pemphigus, matters very little at the present period."1

1 The term "pemphigus" means a disease with bubbles or blisters.

I think we can all readily agree with this conclusion of the doctors, that it does not matter much what we call this horrible disease caused by vaccination, whether it is "Pemphigus," "Foot and Mouth Disease" or "Virulent Cowpox," all of which seem to be fit and proper names, the main point being that this deadly infection is frequently contained in and conveyed by vaccine virus in the operation of vaccination.

The further interesting and surprising fact to be especially noted here, is that while some doctors seem to be fully aware that "Pemphigus" is often caused by vaccination, yet they all seem to be quite ignorant of the fact that the cattle plague known as "Foot and Mouth Disease" is identical with the dis­ease called "Pemphigus" in man, and which is known to be frequently conveyed to butchers and others who handle carcasses of cattle.

The doctors in this discussion were also completely ignorant of the fact that a most extensive and virulent epidemic of Foot and Mouth Disease prevailed in New England in that very year, 1902, when these deadly vaccinations occurred, and that, furthermore, some of the strains of virus used in that year ac­tually contained the foot and mouth infection and that this dangerous infection came from Japan and actually continued for several years, from 1902 to 1908, as before shown in govern­ment reports, thus making a chain of unbreakable facts, which, 1 think, proves the guilt of vaccination for these horrible deadly results beyond any question.

Even if the doctors were inclined to doubt or deny the respon­sibility of vaccination for these horrible results, they could not, logically or truthfully, do so, for the proof of this causation and relation is written as plainly on the bodies of the pitiable vic­tims as was the "handwriting on the wall" described in the Bible. And it is now necessary only to call careful attention to the eruptions shown in Fig. 12 to get a full proof of this point, for it will be noted that the vesicles or pustules which appear all over the body in Fig. 12 have a very distinct "umbilicated" form with a depressed center and raised margin which is char­acteristic of only two diseases, vaccination and smallpox, and a clear proof that either of these two closely related diseases was surely concerned in this eruption, and that this eruption is therefore essentially a virulent "cowpox" or a mongrel small­pox. On this point of identity compare Fig. 12 with Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 6, pages 83 to 88.

In the next illustration, Fig. 13, I give another instance of a vaccination horror very similar to or identical with the horrible cases just exposed.

The photograph, Fig. 13, shows the case of a vaccinated school boy eleven years old infected with foot and mouth dis­ease, virulent cowpox or "pemphigus," which first appeared a few weeks after vaccination and continued intermittently, sometimes in very violent form, for three years! The boy was vaccinated in September, 1914, and this photograph was made at my request eleven months afterwards, in August, 1915, during a comparatively mild stage of the eruptions, which were much worse at other times. These eruptions finally ceased in 1918, after over three years of great suffering by this child victim, and great anxiety and expense on the part of his parents, an& so far without any compensation whatever from those responsible for this great evil. Whoever the Law of Justice should decide to be responsible for such a humanly-inflicted calamity should certainly be made to pay for it.

Fig. 13. School boy Arthur Smith, Jr., eleven years old. Vaccinated September, 1914, photographed August, 1915. Eruptions similar to foot and mouth disease appeared a few weeks after vaccination and continued intermittently for over three years! Photograph shows a mild stage of these eruptions, which were much worse than this at times.   Eruptions ceased in 1918.

I will now let the intelligent father of this afflicted child tell the full story of this case and the suffering of the boy and his parents, in the father's own words as taken from his letters to me on this matter. In his letter dated August 2, 1915, the father, Mr. Arthur Smith, of New Windsor, N. Y., states:

"In reply to your letter of July 29, 1915, reference to the condition of my son from vaccination, I wish to say that, although it is eleven months since he was vaccinated, at the present time he is in the same condition he was in when the account of his sickness was published in the Newburgh Daily News, March 12, 1915; and although since then we have taken him to four different doctors, they have so far failed to do him a particle of good; in fact, they are at a perfect loss at the present time as to what is the matter with him.   The greater part of his body from his toes up to the crown of his head is covered with sores or blisters which are in a continual form of eruption, which form on his body like a small bubble which is filled with a water-like substance, and have to be lanced to let this water out. This is identically the same kind of blister which began to appear in a short time after he was vaccinated, and after we called in the physician who vaccinated him, Dr. Kingston of Newburgh, he immediately pronounced it a case of cowpox. He left a prescription for him but he rapidly got worse, so we decided to call in Dr. Barth and he also said the boy was suffering from a severe case of cowpox; in fact, he said it was the worst case he had ever seen, and he was surprised the boy was allowed to get so bad. But I wish to give Dr. Barth due credit: he worked hard and faithfully to get the best of the disease. It would take him a full hour at times to lance all the sores. After bathing him in antiseptic lotion, he would cover his body with salve and bandage him all up, and it did appear that, after treating him for about three months, he had got the best of the disease; in fact, had improved so much that Dr. Barth said, in due consideration of the cost we were under, that he thought it would be safe to leave him in the care of his mother and let him know if he had a relapse. But I am sorry to say he did not continue to improve; he began to break out bad again and at the present time he is in the same condition I have previously stated. It seems to me that, inasmuch as the State is so insistent upon the subject of vaccination, there should be something done to put upon some one the responsibility of the condition in which vaccination has placed my boy, as it is a continual drain upon my earnings between the doctors and the drug stores."

On September 19, 1915, the boy's father wrote me describing his condition as follows:

"In the first three or four months after vaccination, in which time he was very bad, the blisters would first form like vesicles filled with watery fluid, some would get better without turning into pustules and other blisters would start the same way, fill up with yellow pus and then get better only to crop out again in another place. It would be impossible for me to say how many successive eruptions he had since being vaccinated as he has practically been in a state of eruption on one or other part of his body since vaccination (in September, 1914). For a long time his feet and legs were very bad, also his arms. Then his feet and legs would improve and he would break out on the head and neck. At the present time (September 19, 1915), with the exception of a few sores on the ankles, his feet and legs are in pretty good condition, but his head and neck are very bad; in fact, far worse than when I had the photograph taken (August, 1915). This is the third time they have appeared on the head in violent form. The arms have probably been more affected continually than any other part of his body and have been very bad all the time, also the back of the hands, but not on the inside of the hands. He has not as yet had any sores on the inside of his mouth, but has had them on the nostrils and on the chin, and the outside of the mouth, and odd ones on other parts of his face. At the present time the blisters are about all of the vesicle variety.
    "On the 30th of May, 1915, at the suggestion of Dr. Barth, I took the boy up to Albany to see Dr. Curtis, who is a blood specialist (Skin Expert in the New York State Department of Health), and he asked me a good many questions and looked at the boy's arms, and after due deliberation he said the boy was suffering from 'Pemphigus," and he said he had never seen a case like it, with the exception of one man of 50 years of age, and he said that he died."

The man here referred to as having died from "Pemphigus" after vaccination and as being in a condition similar to that which afflicted this school boy was doubtless Ernest Hoffman, aged fifty-four, architect of Albany, N. Y., who died in Albany, March 26, 1908, and whose case I have carefully studied. The copy of the death certificate in this case, now in my possession, gives the sole and only cause of death as "Pemphigus Vulgaris," without any mention, as required by law, of the contributory, coincident, primary or secondary disease of vaccination, although it is notorious that this man was vaccinated and was suffering with a strange and serious skin disease, as a vaccinal complication, before his death, and the case was the subject of several articles in the local newspapers at the time, as a vaccina­tion complication, or disaster. And this is a good instance, right here, to prove my serious charge against vaccinating doctors, that vaccination disasters are frequently denied and concealed in death certificates, either through ignorance or intention. And this denial or concealment in this case is easily proved because a personal investigation, made by one of my colleagues at the time, secured the information and admission that the patient, Mr. Hoffman, was actually vaccinated with the Mulford virus, which was officially reported to have contained the infection of foot and mouth disease at that time, unknown to our doctors and even unknown to the makers of the virus itself! And this infected virus was the alleged cause of the fearful epidemics of foot and mouth disease in cattle in 1902 and 1908, and the probable cause of the same infection in human victims, as already clearly shown by the government reports and other data previously cited. And, furthermore, as the disease called "Pemphigus" has now been proved to be identical or confusible with foot and mouth disease, I therefore think that a strong chain of facts has now been drawn around vaccination as being the real cause and source of the "Pemphigus" in both the dead architect and the surviving school boy, and in the other cases cited, and that this chain of proof is now complete and unbreakable, and most convincing to any reasonable mind.

For further proof on this point see the Report of the New York State Department of Health for 1908, pages 280 to 296, where this case of the Albany architect, and others, are described, and their relation to vaccination and foot and mouth disease indicated.

The last letter received from the father of the afflicted school boy is dated December 12, 1918, and closes the description of this case, which shows a final recovery of the boy, after years of suffering and with a mutilated or much discolored body, as the result of the many eruptions:

"In reply to your letter of December 3, 1918, I wish to say that my boy at the present time is in fairly good health, and there are no eruptions on his body and with each succeeding year the effect seems to be gradually dying away. The summer of 1917 he broke out in eruption quite bad, especially on the legs, being most severe on the thighs, and also in the summer of 1918, but not near so bad as in the preceding summer. He is free of any eruption at the present time, but the upper part of his body and especially his arms are covered with a large amount of brown spots on the skin where the eruptions have completely died away, but I think that with each succeeding year, as he grows stronger, the effect will entirely dis­appear, with the exception of the brown spots on the skin, which I suppose will always remain and for which there can be no remedy."

To show how really frequent, common and widespread these fearful cases of "pemphigus," "foot and mouth disease" or virulent cowpox, are, as a result of vaccination, I can cite another well authenticated case of this kind, reported in U. S. Naval Records. This case is reported in the U. S. Naval Medical Bulletin for October, 1911, Vol. 5, No. 4, on page 482—under the heading of "Acute Pemphigus Following Vaccination." This article minutely describes the case of a negro carpenter, age sixty, employed at one of the U. S. Naval Stations, and vaccinated there, June 9, 1910. About July 9, 1910, an eruption of vesicles appeared first on the vaccinated arm and in a few days spread all over the body. This eruption was exactly similar to that in the cases already described, viz.: vesicles of various sizes which came out in successive crops and on the same parts of the body as in the other cases. And as these vesicles increased they ran together into large confluent blisters which finally broke and formed denuded scars or raw sores on the skin like scalds or burns. To show that the action on the skin and in the mouth and throat was identical with the other cases here described, I need only quote a few lines from the official article itself, as follows:

"The body and extremities in many places resembled a severe burn or scald, being covered with large denuded red areas, surrounded by blebs of various sizes. . . . Toward the end of the first week several blebs developed in the mouth, one small one on the tongue, and one large one on the side of the pharynx. The latter when it burst 'nearly drowned him,' according to his wife."

The patient finally recovered, like the case in Fig. 12, after several successive eruptions and in about four months after vaccination, or in October, 1910, and much to the surprise of the doctors, owing to the severity of the case and the age of the patient.

It may therefore be now noted that this Naval case, together with the others previously described, show how uniformly distinct and typical these several cases are, as being undoubtedly examples of the same specific disease conveyed by vaccination, and are probably nothing more than a direct degenerated or acute form of the vaccine disease itself or possibly a mongrel form of smallpox which may develop from ordinary vaccination at any time. Concerning this most important point I will have something further to say after describing the last case of this kind in the next paragraph, which is most suggestive and convincing.

A recent vaccination horror in a vaccinated baby and its mother, exactly similar to the cases already exposed, is reported in a circular recently issued by the National Anti-Vaccination League of London. This seems to show a clear and horrible case of cattle plague, "foot and mouth disease," "Pemphigus" or virulent "cowpox" caused by vaccination. And whatever name we may use does not matter much, as before stated, for it is evident that any one or all of these names are interchangeable and appropriate for cases of this kind. In fact, from the many fatal vaccinations of this type occurring in England from time to time, and usually called "Pemphigus" by the doctors and coroners, it would seem that the strain of virus used in England has become permanently tainted with the "foot and mouth disease" or virulent cowpox, as clearly indicated in this recent English case described below

"On March 26, 1918, Mrs. Woofinden of Birmingham took the vaccinated child to see the doctor, who said he had a very good arm. A fortnight after vaccination little white spots had developed round the principal vaccination place, and she pointed these out to the doctor, who said, That's all right... On the following day—sixteen days after vaccination —a white spot appeared on the baby's lip, and the same afternoon one showed itself on the ear. The spot on the lip got larger. The baby was taken to Dr. Kirby on the following Monday, but he was out. Next day he was seen, and declared that the trouble was 'overflow of vaccination.' The child was very cross; its sleep was broken. The vaccination marks on the arm had run together and formed a big white blister. The doctor said it would be all right in a week. In the meantime the mother began to feel very ill; lumps appeared under each arm, and she found eventually that she had been vaccinated on both breasts from a sore inside the baby's mouth. She suffered intense pain and could no longer nurse the baby. . . . Each day, from the 16th day after vaccination, fresh white blisters had developed in various parts of the body, turning to a deeper color as they matured, and looking like miniature vaccination marks.1 . . . Finding Dr. Rowlands away from home, Dr. Kirby arranged for the child's admission to the Birmingham Children's Hospital, where, in just one week, after intense suffering, the poor little victim expired. The blisters had spread all over the body, covered the inside of the mouth and choked up the throat so that the child could not swallow. The arm swelled so enormously that it seemed to be joined to the body, and the inflammation spread all over the upper part till it eventually reached the middle of the chest. The upper part of the arm became black and raw-looking. Every care was taken at the hospital, and at one time the doctors thought they would save the baby's life, but he got weaker and died on April 26th—being four months and a day old. Dr. Jordan, at the hospital, certified that death was due to 'generalized vaccinia, followed by pneumonia.' The case created a great stir in the hospital, and one doctor who saw it remarked, 'So that is true cowpox!' "

1 See eruption in Fig. 12.

Yes, Mr. President, please take careful note just here that this is "true cowpox," as the doctors declared in this last case—the kind of "true cowpox" that is likely to arise at any time from the dangerous infecting operation known as vaccination and the complex infectious material known as vaccine virus, which thus maims or kills its victims by general blood poisoning and by horrible vesicular and pustular eruptions inside and outside the body. And at this stage, Mr. President, I would like to call your special attention to a most significant medical fact which now stands out clearly in the chain of vaccination horrors here disclosed, and this fact is that all the cases occurring in cattle and mankind, herein shown, from the first epidemic of foot and mouth disease in 1902 to the last isolated case of the English baby in 1918, are of identical type, which cannot be mistaken, so that the description of one case will describe all—both in cattle and mankind. Now, surely this identity of type indicates identity in cause and origin, as we see, for example, that the cattle and human cases in 1902 are identical with the case of the English baby in 1918, although separated by a time interval of sixteen years, and a geographical distance over continent and ocean—from Boston to Birmingham—of three thousand miles!

Now, the experts of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, who have studied the epidemics of foot and mouth disease in 1902 and 1908 and proved that they were caused by the manufacture of vaccine virus, seem to be of the positive opinion that foot and mouth disease of cattle is a specific disease distinct from "vaccinia" or "cowpox," and that it was due to some mere chance or accidental infection getting into some strains of vaccine virus that this cattle disease was conveyed to animals and mankind in said epidemics. This theory may be true, but I do not think it has yet been proved, and I believe that it is more probable that the very complex disease known as cowpox or vaccinia is capable at any time of conveying to animals or man the dangerous infection known as "foot and mouth disease," "Pemphigus," "virulent cowpox" or "generalized vaccinia," and that these diseases are not distinct but are identical and confusible with each other, and that the several cases herein shown prove this latter theory, as they are all identical in type although separated by long intervals of time and long distances of space and all occurring as a direct result of vaccination! Furthermore, a great many cases like that of the Albany architect in 1908 and the English baby in 1918 have occurred in England in the past few years and are generally treated as a great mystery by the vaccinating doctors, although they are, in fact, quite common and their relation to vaccination obvious, and these cases are usually called "generalized vaccinia," "over­flow of vaccination" or "Pemphigus" by the English coroners who have passed on many fatal vaccinations of this type in the last ten years.

If, therefore, it is still maintained that foot and mouth disease is distinct from vaccinia, then it seems that this deadly cattle plague has now become a permanent taint in the different strains of vaccine virus used in this country and in England! On the other hand, if foot and mouth disease is not distinct from vaccinia, then it is proved that the horrible and deadly cases of vaccinal disease herein exposed are a normal or regular effect of ordinary vaccination, likely to result at any time therefrom, and to produce epidemics in cattle or mankind; and this proof, therefore, makes general vaccination obviously a much more dangerous and deadly disease than natural smallpox! Surely, Mr. President, this shocking fact calls for immediate attention and the abolishment of all compulsory vaccination, as being now more dangerous to human health and life than the natural disease it is designed to prevent, and this shocking fact can be easily proved by such examples as already given and by many others now concealed and withheld in our vital records, as al­ready solemnly charged in my general public challenge on page vi.

The doctors apply the terms "generalized vaccinia" to any form of vaccinal disease where the eruption becomes general over the body, as in smallpox, instead of being localized and confined to the vaccination wound.  Now, there are two types of this generalized vaccinia—the first being shown in Fig. 5 and the second in Figs. 11,12 and 13. In the first type, the eruption advances to the full pustular stage and the pustules remain either separate or run together in large confluent masses, and these scab over with a dry crust or scab, the same as in confluent smallpox, which it greatly resembles and to which it is equivalent in nature and deadly result, as is fully shown in Fig. 5. In the other type, the eruption does not advance to the pustular stage, but continues in the vesicular and half-pustular stage and runs together into large confluent blisters which do not scab over, but break and excoriate, leaving large denuded or raw sores on the skin like scalds or burns, as shown in Figs. 11,12 and 13. Now, it is this latter form which is identical with "foot and mouth disease" and "Pemphigus," and, if anything, it is more agonizing and deadly than the other form and is much more severe and fatal than ordinary, natural smallpox, although, perhaps, not so contagious, as clearly proved by the many horrible cases in child, adult and domestic animals herein illustrated.

It should, therefore, be clearly understood at this point that vaccination as now practiced is really only a form of human smallpox or "variola" combined with "cowpox" and that the vaccine virus now in use is produced directly from and originates in the virus of human smallpox, which is transplanted on the body of the cow and thence used on the human body, so that it necessarily conveys both human and cow infections to the human body; whereas the original vaccination of Jenner was taken from some much disputed or unknown disease in the horse or cow and thence transferred directly to the human arm, and thence from arm to arm. This was found to be such a dangerous practice that it was long ago condemned and abandoned, and the present practice of combined human and bovine small­pox adopted, which I believe to be as dangerous as the old arm to arm vaccination—if not more so. As present vaccination is, therefore, a combination of human smallpox and cow disease, should there be any wonder if it should convey to the human body, at any time, some mild or deadly form of smallpox, or some mild or deadly form of cow disease as shown in the several cases herein illustrated? And it is a serious question here whether these cases of cow disease and vaccinal disease herein illustrated are not all really only various forms of that very various disease known as "variola" or smallpox and all caused by vaccination, which fs itself, essentially, smallpox at base and origin! Indeed, many students of this subject believe that mod­ern vaccination, which originates from smallpox virus, is partly responsible for causing modern epidemics of smallpox, just as the old prohibited inoculation with smallpox virus was proved to spread the disease and cause epidemics which declined as soon as this inoculation was abandoned and prohibited by penal law. In the same way smallpox has declined in every modern sanitary community where vaccination has been reduced or abandoned, as already shown on page 22, and this being the fact, the abolishment of all compulsory vaccination, and the allowance of voluntary vaccination only, must, surely, to say the least, com­mend itself to all thoughtful and reasonable minds as a most wise, safe and conservative sanitary and hygienic reform!

It should also be understood at this point that investigators have, so far, failed to discover or isolate the specific germs of smallpox 'Vaccinia" and foot and mouth disease, but these germs are all known to belong to the class of microbes termed "ultra-microscopic" and "filterable," that is, so fine and minute that they cannot be distinguished by the microscope and will pass through the finest filters without change. This shows that the germ of foot and mouth disease, whatever it may be, is in the same class with that of smallpox and vaccinia, and may ultimately prove to be identical or closely related, as I contend and believe to be the fact.

The nature and location of the eruptions found in natural small­pox and in "Generalized Vaccination," "Acute Pemphigus," "Virulent Cowpox" and "Foot and Mouth Disease" conclusively prove that these several diseases are closely related, or identical in their essential nature, and are probably varieties of the same generic disease.

For example, no disease but smallpox and its relatives has the profuse vesicular or partly pustular eruptions on the inside of the mouth and throat combined with vesicular or pustular eruptions, usually of "umbilicated" form, on the skin of the body and limbs. Now, these characteristic and combined eruptions are distinctly found in both the animal and human cases of virulent cowpox or foot and mouth disease shown herein and all caused by, and originating from, vaccination, which is, of course, in itself, nothing but a form of smallpox in substance and origin.  These characteristic eruptions are particularly well shown in the human cases illustrated in Figs. 11,12 and 13, also in the case of the negro naval carpenter on page 122, and in the case of the English baby on page 123, which latter is a particu­larly complete, frightful and convincing case of this positive proof against vaccination. Substantially the same conditions exist also in the many cases of Foot and Mouth Disease in cat­tle, illustrated in Figs. 7, 8, 8l/2 and 9, in all of which cases the same eruptions occur inside the mouth and throat and on the feet, teats and udder, and sometimes on other parts of the ex­ternal skin similar to what occur in the human subject. For typical eruptions on teats and udder, see Fig. 8y2, page 95, taken from Farmers' Bulletin, No. 666, before cited, issued by U. S. Department of Agriculture.

If, therefore, the apologists for vaccination now wish to deny or excuse its responsibility for causing Mongrel Smallpox or Foot and Mouth Disease in animals and man, as herein clearly shown, they cannot do so, as the cases here illustrated surely carry their own proof on their very faces, as just pointed out, and each case carries the "sign manual" of this deadly vaccination-pox branded on the body of each victim, so plain, indelible and convicting that no vaccination apology can erase it.

I, therefore, believe that the facts now herein disclosed constitute nothing less than a moral and medical indictment against all Bovine Vaccination, particularly that evil practice of compulsory vaccination which would force this dangerous disease of "Vaccination-pox" upon child or adult, soldier or sailor, against free will and consent, and under the false representation that it is necessary for health and is perfectly safe and harmless, whereas it is, in fact, highly dangerous to human and animal life and frequently more dangerous and fatal than natural smallpox, as fully demonstrated in these pages.


The ........  Vaccine Farms,
Dr......... & Co., Proprietors.
The Largest and Most Complete Vaccine Establishment in the World. Only Vaccine Awarded a Medal by The World's Columbian Exposition.
M........ Pa., Oct. 25, 1906.

Dr. J. W. Hodge,
Niagara Falls, N. Y.
Dear Doctor:
In response to your inquiry of the 22nd inst., we beg to state that Vaccine Virus or its active principle is a subject about which very little is definitely known. We are only able to arrive at the results obtained from certain conditions.
    It was thought by Dr......... , the founder of our establishment, that he had discovered a case of spontaneous cowpox, and we have been using as one of our strains of seed virus, this source for nearly twenty years. It later developed, however, that the case referred to evidently was inoculated by a tramp having smallpox and who slept in the stable. . . .
    We regret our inability to give you more definite information on the subject, but trust the above may be of some value to you.
                                                                Very truly yours,
                                                                                Dr,......... & Co.
                                                                                        By........ ,

This letter surely speaks for itself, with shocking force, as to the vile known and unknown nature of vaccine virus, and needs no further comment here.

Biological Department,
Home Offices and Laboratories.
Detroit, Mich., March 27, 1905.
Mr. Chas. M. Higgins, 271 Ninth St.,
Brooklyn, N. Y.
Dear Sir:
Your communication on the subject of vaccine virus has been received and contents noted.
    What you say about the confusion existing in the minds of the medical profession as shown by medical textbooks regarding the origin of vaccine is entirely true. No one seems to know positively the exact nature of this product. It would seem to us, however, that the theory that cowpox is but modified smallpox, is the most tenable one. Particularly does this seem true in view of the facts reported by Dr. Monckton Copeman, Director of the Government Vaccine work in London, that he had been able to take smallpox virus, transmit it to monkeys, from monkeys to heifers, and from heifers to man, the resulting vaccination on the human subject being identically the same as that produced by vaccine as ordinarily prepared. Furthermore it was shown that the persons vaccinated with this vaccine, when exposed to smallpox, were immune. In other words, the chain of evidence seems very complete, that by properly transferring the smallpox virus from man to animals of different species it became so modified in the transmission that, when applied to heifers, it produced typical vaccinia, and was found to fill every requirement as a means of protecting against smallpox when applied to unimmunized children.
    On theoretical grounds it seems to us that this is a very plausible explanation of the origin of vaccinia. During Jenner's time smallpox was very prevalent and nothing could be more natural than for persons recovering from smallpox to transmit the disease to the udders of cows, producing an infection which, on account of the difference in the species of the animal, modified the small­pox virus.
    Regretting that we are unable to state more positively the exact relation between the two diseases and the origin of the seed as used by manufacturers, we remain,
Very sincerely yours, (Signed) PARKE, DAVIS & CO.

This letter, like the preceding one, frankly admits the doubt, ignorance and confusion as to the origin of vaccine virus, and the practically unknown origin and nature of the seed virus used by manufacturers, except that it most probably originates in human smallpox, pure and simple. This letter is given in full on the left and speaks clearly for itself and is worth reading carefully on this most important point as it shows the crude, un­known and unscientific basis of all bovine vaccination which is proved out of the mouths of the arch-vaccinators themselves. See also page 82.


        Fig. 14.   Before Vaccination                      Fig. 15.   After Vaccination

On September 1, 1911, at the age of eighteen years and eight months, Henry Plant was admitted into the Royal Navy, at Wolverhampton, as a second-class stoker, and passed a searching medical examination by a naval doctor at Birmingham. He was sent to Portsmouth, served on the "Victory" till September 24, and was then drafted to the "Renown." Shortly afterwards he was vaccinated in three places, high up on the left shoulder. On October 19, 1911, he was admitted to the Royal Naval Hospital, Haslar, suffering from influenza. Severe shooting pains from the left shoulder to the finger-tips developed, and for sixteen days he was treated for rheumatism. After sixteen days' intense suffering an operation was performed, an abscess was discovered, and from this time till the arm was amputated on July 9, 1912, the poor fellow suffered unceasingly. Four Members of Parliament took up the case, and the final result was a compassionate grant of £50 compensation and the offer of a situation at Devonport under the Admiralty. Representatives worked for nearly seven months to secure justice for the young man, and though the Admiralty have never admitted that the loss of the arm was due to vaccination, their action in compensating Plant is an admission of responsibility. The facts in this and the following case are taken from a circular issued by The National Anti-Vaccination League, London.

The Finchley Press, for November  13,  1914, contained the following particulars:

"Military Honours,

"funeral of a Finchley drill-instructor yesterday.

"Drill-Instructor Nichols, of 42, Sedgemere Avenue, who was well known in Finchley, has passed away at the age of fifty-one as the result of the after effects of inoculation. A big, strong, healthy-looking man, the news will come as a surprise to those who knew him.
"There was a large attendance at St. Marylebone Cemetery at the funeral yesterday (Thursday) afternoon, when Mr. Nichols was buried with military honours."

Fig. 16. Sergeant H. Nichols, of East Finchley, England, died on November 4, 1914, from the effect of anti-typhoid inoculation.

A resident at East Finchley sent the following particulars to the Anti-Vaccination League of London:

"Mr. Nichols had been a Territorial for about eight years, and as a boy was intended for Sandhurst College, but circumstances prevented this. A keen soldier, and particularly clever at drilling recruits, he was being kept for Home Service. Understanding that inoculation was compulsory for     the men, he underwent the operation as an example and encouragement.
"On Saturday, October 24, he was inoculated a second time on the left side of chest. He was taken ill at once and went home to bed, complaining of a dreadful beating on the top of his brain. On the Monday he reported himself ill and was given the half-day off with the others, but passed for duty for the Tuesday and Wednesday and sent on an eight-mile march. On the Thursday he woke up with severe trembling, later on partial paralysis set in with very severe delirium, kidney trouble, swollen tongue and many other distressing symptoms. Also his heart, which had always been passed as perfectly sound, was very bad. Two nurses and his own doc­tor (a believer in inoculation) attended him. On the day of his death, November 4, his pulse was 144.
    "Sergeant Nichols was a very strong man, never ill, and looked more like forty than fifty years of age. His photograph indicates his 'fitness.' For some time before his death he did sergeant's work and was known as full platoon sergeant, but the papers verifying this only came through, Mrs. Nichols understood, just about the time of his death, so that he is described as corporal on death certificate, but she says he had a sergeant's funeral and is described as such on the gravestone.
"Mr. Nichols' death was a great shock to his friends, some of whom saw him two weeks before death, when he was telling them how Very fit' he was feeling, and how thoroughly his heart was in his work."

The death certificate in this case gives the cause of death as: 1. "Anti-Typhoid Vaccination."   2. "Pneumonia."

We cite this fatal English case here out of many others on record in this country and England because it is so typical and such a plain example of many cases of sickness and death caused by typhoid vaccination since its adoption several years ago. How many cases of illness or death have been truly caused by this and other kinds of vaccination in the Army and Navy, in recent years, can probably be accurately determined only by a special committee of investigation appointed by the Commander-in-Chief or by Congress, and so selected as to be entirely free of any medical or professional interest or bias.

The office of the Surgeon General of the U. S. Army in answer to my request for information on this point admits that many cases of sickness have been caused by smallpox and typhoid vaccination in the Army in the year 1917, but states that no deaths have been caused by any form of vaccination in said year 1917, and that the data for the year 1918 are not yet available. The figures admitted for sickness from the two forms of vaccination stated seem to be serious and significant and are now given below in the words of the letter addressed to me from the Surgeon General's office, March 15, 1919, as follows:

"The number of men admitted to sick report during 1917 for typhoid vaccination was 10,549, or a rate of 15.54 for each one thousand men.
"For smallpox vaccination the number admitted was 9,059, or a rate of 13.35 for each one thousand men.
"The total number of days lost as the result of typhoid vaccination was 28,679 and for smallpox 34,814."

Now, I think that this shows a rather serious and significant amount of sickness which can thus incapacitate about fifteen men out of every thousand for several days, or about one and a half per cent, of the whole Army! And, surely, where such deliberately inflicted vaccinal diseases forced on the soldiers cause such an amount of sickness as is here admitted, they are also likely to cause death in some cases and do frequently cause death in many cases, as I have already demonstrated beyond question.

I, therefore, believe that the statement that no deaths have been caused in the U. S. Army from vaccination in 1917 is possibly not correct, and that a careful investigation by unbiased investigators would probably show that many deaths have been so caused directly or indirectly by the present barbarous system of compulsory vaccination, or inflicted disease, which admittedly causes so much sickness. Vaccinating doctors who believe in this barbarism of compulsory disease and force it upon their helpless patients under the false pleas that it is actually necessary, perfectly harmless and surely effective, have obviously an evil professional bias and interest to deny and conceal the real facts whenever some "complication" or "infection" caused by the vaccination arises and extends and finally kills the patient; and in such case the coercive doctor can very easily satisfy his con­science and compromise "statistics" by recording the death as due solely to one or more of the "complications" and not at all to the vaccination, which, as a matter of fact, I know to be a common thing with vaccinators in civic practice. Indeed, it is admitted in official reports that a similar careless practice as to false diagnosis and incorrect report of cause of death exists in some cases in the U. S. Army where, for example, actual typhoid fever in vaccinated men had been reported as "Influenza" and where death of vaccinated men from typhoid was entered as due solely to one of the complications such as "Peritonitis," "Broncho-Pneumonia," etc. See page 207, showing failure of vaccination in U. S. Army, from Report of the Chief Surgeon of the A. E. F. in France.

The English example of Sergeant Nichols, above given, well illustrates the very grave and sudden illness frequently caused by typhoid vaccination, sometimes resulting in death and usually involving some form of paralysis, heart failure, meningitis and pneumonia, as in this Nichols case, where evidently paralysis and pneumonia were the two chief complicating and terminal diseases which resulted in death. This fact is very significant here because meningitis and pneumonia are now two of the chief causes of death in the Army, and there is a strong chain of evidence showing that these two diseases have a positive relation to vaccination and are probably caused or aggravated thereby, and this point is most important in showing the dan­gerous infecting nature of vaccination both in itself and in its relation to and combination with other disease infections, as I will prove in the next paragraph.

It is a most interesting and suggestive fact that two of the chief causes of death in the Army are meningitis and pneumonia, and it is also most significant that the Army death-rate from these two diseases, both relatively and absolutely, is much higher than in the civil population, although the Army is composed of picked men of the highest physical type and best health, while the civil population contains all the weaklings and diseased and the average types. On this important point see the latest Report of the Surgeon General of the United States Army for 1918, covering the statistics of the year 1917. On pages 44, 236, 285 and 286 in this report it is shown that the chief causes of death in the Army in 1917 were pneumonia, measles and meningitis in the order stated, and that pneumonia causes about thirty-two per cent, of all deaths, measles thirty per cent., meningitis ten per cent, and scarlet fever about two per cent. As regards the greater frequency of these diseases in the Army than in the civil population, it is shown at page 236 that measles is two hundred times more frequent, meningitis fifteen times more frequent, pneumonia twelve times more frequent, and scarlet fever ten times more frequent in the Army than in the civil population! It is, therefore, believed that this extraordinarily high death-rate in the Army from meningitis and pneumonia, where it should be the lowest, is due to the extensive repeated and multiple vaccinations of various kinds now used in the Army, which greatly exceed the ratio of vaccination in the civil population. This fact, combined with the closely related fact that meningitis and pneumonia are regularly and constantly two of the most common complications in fatal cases of vaccination, furnishes convincing proof of the possible responsibility of vaccination for being the cause of the epidemics of meningitis and pneumonia in our excessively vaccinated Army within the last two years.    For example, in many of the cases of fatal vaccination, which I have investigated, or have on record, for several years past, I find that pneumonia and meningitis figure as the chief complicating diseases which have caused death in acting as a secondary, double, or mixed infection with the primary infection of the vaccination, and that these two diseases are the most common complications together with septicemia and lock­jaw in all fatal vaccinations.   Indeed, the several fatal vaccinations illustrated in this chapter of vaccination horrors prove this point clearly, as most of them show pneumonia or meningitis or both as the fatal complications.   For example, in the case of the Waters boy described on page 168, it appears from the autopsy and hospital report in my possession that pneumonia and meningitis were the fatal complications with the vaccination and are set down in these records as the chief causes of death. Likewise, in the case of the English soldier and the English baby on pages 135 and 123, pneumonia appears as the complicating disease and the final cause of death in both cases.  Furthermore, in Dr. Howe's six fatal cases in 1902, described on page 113, one of which is illustrated in Fig. 11, page no, it was found that severe lung lesions existed in four of these cases involving lobar and broncho-pneumonia and pleurisy.    In the eleven cases of fatal vaccination taken from Mr. Loyster's pamphlet on pages 145 to 159, meningitis figures as the fatal compli­cation in three cases, paralysis in three cases and lockjaw in five cases.

In explanation of these several cases where vaccination has evidently acted as a primary infection, complicated with the secondary or mixed infection of some other co-acting disease, it may be stated that the germs of these very deadly diseases, such as lockjaw, meningitis and pneumonia, seem to be normally diffused widely in the human body, or in its surroundings, where they are normally perfectly inert, dormant and harmless, but are aroused into deadly activity by the dangerous primary infect­ing action of vaccination, which, being a pus or septicemic infection, seems to provide conditions for the growth or activation of the dormant disease germs which would otherwise remain perfectly harmless, just as gunpowder remains perfectly inert and harmless until touched by an igniting spark. And it would, therefore, seem that vaccination thus evidently acts as an igniter or "activator" to these dormant indwelling infections and causes the double or "mixed infection" which finally produces the deadly effect. In fact, it seems that most deaths are caused by double or mixed infections, or by several diseases acting in combination or complication, and that comparatively few deaths are caused by one simple disease acting alone. And it also seems to be a fact that the vitality of the human body is usually so great and its natural safeguards so many that it or­dinarily yields only to a complicated attack of several diseases combined. If this view is correct, and it seems to accord with modern medical theories and experience, then the folly of the whole scheme of multiple vaccinations seems to be apparent in the evident fallacy of expecting to defend the body against natural infections by filling it with a whole series of inflicted infec­tions which arouse the most deadly but dormant infections already in the body! Furthermore, many of these inflicted in­fections are almost purely experimental and unknown as to their really final or ultimate effect. In other cases the infections are known to be more or less dangerous and deadly in their pos­sibilities, and even at their best have the effect only of giving immunity for a short while, perhaps for a few months, from such comparatively minor diseases as smallpox and typhoid fever, while they make the human body more susceptible to diseases of ten or one hundred times greater frequency and fatality, such as pneumonia, meningitis, measles and scarlet fever.

At this point we might again quote from one of the latest medical works and one of the leading doctors of to-day, viz., from Osier's "Principles and Practice of Medicine," eighth edition, 1918, page 330, where the point just argued is clearly recognized as to the effect of vaccination in exciting other diseases and is expressed in these distinct words:

"Influence of Vaccination Upon Other Diseases: A quies­cent malady may be lighted into activity by vaccination.  This has happened with congenital syphilis, occasionally with tuberculosis."

Now, as regards the extraordinary prevalence of the two other diseases, scarlet fever and measles, in the Army, it is a rather strange and suggestive coincidence that these two deadly in­fantile diseases are more closely related to smallpox and vaccination than any other known diseases,—so much so, in fact, that in olden times they were actually considered as forms of smallpox and were not differentiated therefrom as in modern times; and they are, of course, very often, to-day, confounded with smallpox by inexpert doctors before the eruption is fully developed, or in mild types of smallpox which are often mis­taken for scarlet fever or measles. These facts would therefore seem to indicate that the excessive smallpox or cowpox vaccina­tions in the army may have had some relation to the excessive measles and scarlet fever as well as to the excessive pneumonia and meningitis; and this point is worthy of careful considera­tion, to say the least, and cannot be consistently or logically ignored by any unbiased student of epidemic diseases and pres­ent-day medical practices.

I therefore submit, Mr. President, that in the many co-related and convincing facts above stated, there is surely presented a strong chain of circumstantial evidence showing that the ex­cessive vaccination in the Army and Navy may be the cause of the excessive death-rate from meningitis and pneumonia, and in this showing there is surely to be found the strongest and most compelling reason why all compulsory vaccination should now be permanently abolished in the Army and Navy, and only voluntary vaccination permitted hereafter.

This picture, with its expressive title, is taken from an old number of Harper s Weekly and shows how vaccination com-

Fig. 17.   The "Savage Rite" of Vaccination illustrated in action.
"The Medicine Man performs his Savage Rites."
From Harper's Weekly, February 24, 1912.

mences in the acts of wounding and infecting the forced, frightened, suffering and protesting children. The following pages will show how this medical savagery ends in the disabling and death of so many of our little children all over this land from blood poisoning in its many different forms, caused by or resulting from the vaccination. This slaughter of our precious children now reaches a most serious and shocking figure every year, far in excess of deaths from smallpox, and this fact is most persistently and shamefully denied and concealed by our vaccinating doctors, who, at present, control our Departments of Health and Vital Statistics. Surely this medical savagery, proved by so many flagrant and undeniable examples in the preceding and following pages, cries out to Human and to Di­vine Justice for a Radical Medical Reform, which should be either the Abolishment of All Vaccination or the Abolishment of All Compulsion.





In  memory of his son
Lewis Freeborn Loyster

who Died September 21, 1914
as a sequence of Vaccination

Note. Mr. Loyster's full pamphlet contains forty pages showing fifty one cases of vaccinal disasters, thirty of which were fatal. Only about a third of these fatal cases have been selected for illustration here.—C. M. H.


THE object of this pamphlet is to publish the result of a painstaking inquiry into the effects of vaccination in the State of New York in 1914.

My immediate personal interest in the subject is due to the death of my only son as a result of vaccination.

I have been a believer in and advocate of vaccination. I was myself vaccinated in childhood by the arm-to-arm method without ill effects. It was in accordance with this belief and in an honest effort to comply with the law that I had my son vaccinated. Even his death did not entirely shake my faith in the practice, but it led me to make an investigation of the results of vaccination in New York State in 1914. Owing to the difficulty of making a canvass in the great cities, no effort was made to collect statistics in New York and Buffalo, and but little in Rochester, Syracuse or Albany. My investigations were, therefore, practically confined to the rural or semi-rural portions of the State.

The result has been the gathering of such an appalling story of death and illness as to completely shatter my belief in the wisdom of enforced vaccination.

It should be understood that I am not a physician. This leaves me free to write with greater frankness in certain in­stances than would be permitted to a doctor by the ethics of his profession.

I desire to be understood as seeking nothing but the common good of humanity. In the pages that follow I have attempted to write without bias as far as is humanly possible. Only established facts are presented; extravagant statements have been avoided; in no single instance has a quotation been made from an anti-vaccination source.    I have felt that my case is so strong that I could afford to be generous in my arguments.

The reader is invited to go over the facts as presented and draw his own conclusions as to the accuracy of the deductions made.

James A. Loyster.
Cazenovia, N. Y., Jan. 5, 1915.

Note.   In the group pictures on the following pages the star indicates the victim of vaccination.—C. M. H.

CASE No. 1

                                  Olive Cramer

OLIVE CRAMER, daughter of Fred Cramer, 22 E. State St., Gloversville, N. Y.
Age 15.
Vaccinated July 28 with vaccine "E."
Commenced to complain Aug. 24,—27 days from vaccination.
Died Aug. 27.
Diagnosis, 'Tetanus following Vaccination."

This young woman's health prior to vaccination is reported to have been "one hundred per cent, perfect." She commenced to complain Aug. 24, and was stricken with convulsions Aug. 26. Death occurred at 11:15 p.m. on Aug. 27. She was conscious all the time except the last few hours. Jaws were locked and breathing labored. A brother vaccinated with the same tube of vaccine was so ill as to require an operation.

CASE No. 2

                                    Frederick W. Bohmwetch

FREDERICK W. BOHMWETCH, son of F. J. Bohmwetch,
308 Eighth St., Watkins, N. Y. Age 10.
Vaccinated Aug. 5.
Commenced to complain Aug. 29,—24 days after vaccination.
Died Sept. 2.
Diagnosis, "Tetanus."

Complained first of stiff neck and arm. Aug. 30 diagnosed as lockjaw. Three thousand units antitoxin administered. Grew rapidly worse. Convulsions appeared at 3 a.m., Aug. 31. At 9 a.m., 10,000 units antitoxin administered; again at 9 p.m. Head and back drawn back so that three pillows were necessary under small of back. More antitoxin adminis­tered Sept. 1.   Unconscious at noon.   Died Sept. 2.

CASE No. 3

                                           Reginald Sidney Sumsion

REGINALD SIDNEY SUMSION, only son of Geo. Sumsion,
Gloversville, N. Y.
Age 12.
Vaccinated Aug. 11 with vaccine "E."
Died Sept. 11.
Diagnosis, 'Tetanus."

This boy was "splendidly healthy." Never sick except with usual children's diseases, until vaccinated. First complained that the back of his neck and jaw were stiff. On the 7th could not walk. Convulsions appeared. Antitoxin administered. Removed to hospital. Convulsions continued very severe. Chloroform administered. Convulsions continued through the 7th and 8th. Very weak on afternoon of 9th. Oxygen administered at 6 p.m. Died 6:45 a.m., Sept. 11. No abrasion of any kind found on body except vaccination wound.

CASE No. 7

              Frederick Stinefoot

FREDERICK STINEFOOT, only son of William H. Stine'foot, No. 226 Mullett St., Dunkirk, N. Y.
Age 10.
Vaccinated Sept. 22.
Commenced to complain Oct. 5—13 days from vaccination.  
Died Oct. 13. Diagnosed "Tetanus."

This child was in splendid health. The night before he was stricken he was feeling especially well. On Monday morning his neck was stiff and shoulders all drawn up. Dr. Hallenbeck was called but he insisted that the family physician be employed. He was out and Dr. Ellis, the health officer, was called. The case was diagnosed as tetanus. Convulsions appeared at 6 o'clock. No serum was available until Tuesday, Oct. 6, about 10 a.m. A quantity injected intra-spinously. Removed to Brooks Hospital, Dunkirk, about 4 p.m. same day and died fifteen minutes after admission.

CASE No. 8

               James Louis Murray

JAMES LOUIS MURRAY, son of James T. Murray, Glen
Cove, L. I.
Age 6.
Vaccinated Sept. 15, vaccine "H."
Commenced to complain Oct. 3,—18 days from vaccination.
Died Oct. 10.
Diagnosed "Tetanus."

This child had no prolonged period of unconsciousness. He had convulsions and other typical symptoms of tetanus. His health is reported good prior to vaccination.

CASE No. 18

           Edward Johnson

EDWARD JOHNSON, son of J. Johnson, No. 65 South St..
Binghamton, N. Y.
Age 11 years 7 months.
Vaccinated Aug. 6, vaccine "E."
Commenced to complain Aug. 14,—8 days from vaccination.
Died Aug. 26.
First diagnosed "Blood Poison." Subsequent diagnosis "Typhoid Meningitis."

Patient had been in perfect health prior to vaccination. He was ordered to hospital for an operation to which parents would not consent. There were no convulsions. He was unconscious about a week. Paralysis of the throat a prominent symptom.   Breathing much labored.
    Both this case and No. 17 were subjects of sharp controversy among doctors and others in the city of Binghamton. There is no lack of medical opinion as to vaccination having been the primary cause of illness, but this is stoutly denied by other physicians. Considered collectively with the similar cases herewith reported, it seems that there can be little doubt of their being similar to the rest of the vaccination fatalities.

CASE No. 19

BELLE HINMAN, daughter of Prof. M. C Hinman, Tully, N. Y.
Age 7.
Vaccinated July 25, vaccine "H."
Commenced to complain Aug. 7,—12 days from vaccination.
Died Aug. 10.
First diagnosis, "Acute Indigestion."
Final diagnosis, "Cerebro-spinal Meningitis."

This little girl was also in perfect health and unusually well developed for age, both physically and mentally. She complained of feeling ill on Aug. 7 with symptoms indicating a digestive disturbance.
    The local physician called it acute indigestion. She soon lapsed into unconsciousness and never rallied. Expert counsel was called and case pronounced cerebro-spinal meningitis. A lumbar puncture disclosed in spinal column a clear fluid under normal pressure. Cultures were sterile; intraspinous injection of the Flexner serum without beneficial effects. Paralysis was extensive, involving the throat; breathing labored and death due to respiratory insufficiency. Temperature elevated during entire illness. All symptoms were so exactly parallel to those of Cases 24 and 25 as to warrant the suspicion that this, too, was infantile paralysis.                        

CASE No. 20

                                         James C. Churchill

JAMES C. CHURCHILL, son of Carl F. Churchill, Dolgeville, N. Y.
Age 5 years 9 months.
Vaccinated about Feb. 12, vaccine "H."
Commenced to complain in a few days.
Died July 23.
Diagnosed "Cerebro-spinal Meningitis."

This boy had good health until he was vaccinated. He commenced to complain in a few days and was never well afterwards. He was unconscious for 10 days before death. Right side paralyzed. Compare with Cases 19, 24, 25.

CASE No. 24

                        Wilbur Doyle

WILBUR DOYLE, son of Ivan Doyle, New Woodstock, Madison County, N. Y. Age 8.
Vaccinated Aug. 28, vaccine "E."
Commenced to complain Sept. 9,—11 days from vaccination.
Died Sept. 14.
Diagnosis, "Infantile Paralysis."

This boy became unconscious Sept. 9. Temperature nearly 106. Kidneys involved; necessary to use catheter. Temperature dropped to about normal for few hours. General paralysis appeared. Throat paralyzed Sept. 13. Could not swallow. Temperature again became extremely high, reaching 107.4 rectal at 3 a.m. on the 13th. Remained unconscious until death, which occurred at 10:35 p.m. Sept. 14.

Note. The make of vaccine virus used in the different fatal cases shown herein is indicated by the Code letters "E" and "H." E indicates the virus made by the Mulford Company of Philadelphia, and H the virus made by Parke Davis & Company of Detroit. These were the two manufacturers whose virus is officially alleged to have caused the epidemic of Foot and Mouth Disease in 1908.   See page 99.—C. M. H.

CASE No. 25

                                    Lewis Freeborn Loyster

LEWIS FREEBORN LOYSTER, son of James A. Loyster,
Cazenovia, N. Y. Age 11.
Vaccinated Aug. 29, vaccine "E."
Commenced to complain Sept. 10,—11 days from vaccination.
Died Sept. 21.
Diagnosed "Infantile Paralysis."

This boy was the picture of health. To quote the attending physician, he was "a splendid specimen" physically. On the night of Sept. 10 he had a bad headache. The next morning at six was no better. At ten he was found by his mother unconscious. He was very constipated and slightly nauseated. Vomited once. Examination of urine showed indican in considerable quantities. The initial diagnosis was acute indigestion. Blood examined and found normal except for an excess of white corpuscles, explained as a natural sequence of vaccination. Unconsciousness continued. On Sept. 13 lumbar puncture made. Fluid from spinal cord not under pressure; perfectly transparent, subject to microscopic and culture tests; proved absolutely sterile. Case diagnosed as infantile paralysis of the cerebral type. Temperature very high, ranging from 104 to 106 rectal. About Sept. 14 throat became paralyzed. For five days could not swallow a drop. Food administered through rectum; medicine hypodermically. Paralysis of right leg and arm appeared about Sept. 17. Lungs filled with thick mucus. Respiration labored. Slight cyanosis. Small amount of oxygen administered continually after Sept. 16. Death occurred at 10:10 p.m. on Sept. 21 from paralysis of respiratory muscles. Temperature about 107 at death. Microscopic examination of spinal cord after death confirmed diagnosis as infantile paralysis.

CASE N0.27

                     Ruth A. Minnick

RUTH A. MINNICK, daughter of S. V. Minnick. R. D. No 2.,Carthage, N. Y.
Age 10 1/2.
Vaccinated Sept. 22.
Commenced to complain Oct. 2.—10 days from vaccination
Died Oct. 10.
Diagnosis, "Infantile Paralysis."

This little girl's health was perfect. She and her older brother aged (13?) were vaccinated on the same day. Both became ill, the little girl critically so. She had no convulsions: was unconscious four days: her throat was paralyzed. Death occurred as stated. The boy was "very sick" with symptoms "much like the girl," but recovered.

CASE No. 28

HOBART MINNICK, son of S. V. Minnick, R. D. No. 2, Carthage.

Vaccinated Sept. 22.
Commenced to complain Oct. 2 (10 days). Recovered.

This boy, age 13, brother of Ruth Minnick, was vaccinated from same capsule as sister who died; was very sick with symptoms "about like the girl," but recovered with no serious consequences. It appears almost certain that this was what may be called an "abortive" or "arrested" case of infantile paralysis. The fact that he was vaccinated simultaneously with his sister, who died of a transparent case of infantile paralysis, is strong presumptive evidence of a common origin of the two cases in the vaccine. Cumulative evidence of this common origin in the virus, and of the possibility of transmitting infantile paralysis by means of the vaccine abrasion, is found in a third case in the same house, as follows:

CASE No. 29

CHARLES S. MINNICK, son of S. V. Minnick, Carthage,
N. Y. Age 6.
Vaccinated Oct. 6.
Commenced to complain Oct. 16,—10 days from vaccination. Recovered.
Diagnosis, "Vaccination."

The first unfavorable symptom was kidney trouble. He was unconscious and helpless for two weeks. Breathing labored. Is recovering slightly crippled. This also seems to be a transparent case of infantile paralysis These three cases in the same house, with identical symptoms, following vaccination in exactly the same period of time, furnish the most damaging evidence against vaccine that has been brought to light in the present investigation.

The theory of the possibility of conveying infantile paralysis through vaccine abrasions as well as the probability of the vaccine having contained the germs receives startling confirmation in three cases in the home of S. V. Minnick of Carthage, reported under numbers 27, 28, and 29. Ruth, 10 1/2, and Hobart, 13, were vaccinated the same day from the same tube of virus. Both became very sick in just ten days from vaccination. The boy, being older, recovered, after a severe illness, with symptoms much like the girl. Ruth died after a plain case of infantile paralysis, which was so reported by her attending physician. Four days before the little girl's death, in compliance with the demand of the school authorities, the little brother, Charles, age 6, was vaccinated. In precisely 10 days he, also, became very sick, with symptoms practically identical with the other two children. He was unconscious and helpless for two weeks, but recovered with a slight residual paralysis. He was attended by another physician and the only diagnosis reported is "Vaccination."

Simultaneous cases of infantile paralysis in the same family have hitherto been so rare as to excite comment. Many physicians with large practice have never had an instance in their entire practice.   Here are three in one house.

The theory of "subsequent infection" needs extensive "bracing" in this instance; and then there is Case 19 with onset in 12 days; Case 24, onset in 11 days; Case 25, onset in 11 days; unquestionably paralysis cases, with practically identical incubation periods, all contributing evidence of a common and simultaneous infection. What other possible common origin except the vaccine virus is it possible to place under suspicion? It is unthinkable that these children, widely scattered in different portions of the State, with no history of nearby paralysis cases, could have each accidentally acquired the germ in the vaccination wound exactly ten or eleven days from vaccination.

Such a theory presupposes a universal distribution of the poliomyelitis germ entirely at variance with observation and experience.


Note. Vaccination is acknowledged to be one of the causes of Infantile Paralysis by a recent medical authority on this subject, Dr. Oskar Vulpius, in a book published by Wm. Wood & Company of New York, 1912.—C. M. H.

It has been the intent of the writer to present facts rather than to participate in a controversy that is still unsettled after a century of argument; but as a result of the investigation of over fifty vaccination disasters and the almost constant study of vaccination literature for several months, it seems that the following conclusions are warranted and should be frankly stated:

(1)      Vaccination has been the cause, directly or indirectly, of the death of at least fifty children in New York State in 1914.  The record herewith printed gives only the cases occurring in rural or suburban districts.   Neither the time nor means were at hand to make a canvas of the cities.   While only 27 fatalities are here recorded, some of which are not clearly proven, it is believed that were the figures from the cities obtainable, possible errors in the list would be more than offset and enough reported to swell the total to the number given.
(2)      In addition to the deaths an appalling trail of illness has followed vaccination.   It has been entirely beyond the scope of this publication to print even a partial record of these cases.
(3)      The cost in illness and destruction of child life is entirely out of proportion to the amount of protection against smallpox that is attained or needed.   There were but three deaths from smallpox in the entire State, including Greater New York, in 1914.   In one rural district twenty miles in diameter, where four children died from vaccination, there has not been a single case of smallpox within the memory of any person now living.
(4)      Vaccination of children is wrong in principle, is not in harmony with the trend of the best medical practice and should be abandoned. It is being more clearly understood every day that many of the serious ills of later years are directly traceable to the so-called children's diseases. Whereas the tendency was once to encourage the having of such diseases so as to "have them over with/' the tendency now is to keep the child just as free from them as can be, and postpone them to as late an age as possible. A normal vaccination is as serious as some of the diseases of childhood, without taking into further account its sinister possibilities.


Note. I have a few hundred copies of Mr. Loyster's valuable pamphlet now in hand, and can furnish full copies, on request, for ten cents each to cover cost and postage. The substance of the pamphlet is, however, embodied in the preceding pages.—C. M. H.

I have received many touching personal letters, during the past few years, from victims of vaccination and from parents of slaughtered and deformed children, and I now submit extracts from some of these letters to show the horrible nature and ex­tent of this evil and the strong call that is going up all over this country for help to abolish this evil. And this call must surely appeal to every humanized mind, lay or medical, and particu­larly to all such minds in public place or power, to do what they can for the investigation and legal suppression of this bar­barous medical crime of compulsory disease, which is now re­quired by an evil doctor-made law as a condition for entrance to our public schools and for service in the Army and Navy.

No. 1. Having read your article in last night's paper on the dangers of vaccination I want to compliment you on the work of enlightening the masses that you and your league are doing. Both my brother and I are victims of vaccination, having, as children, after such an inoculation developed a severe disease of the eyes which has left both my brother's eyes seriously impaired, and has left me with a scar directly in front of the pupil of my right eye, obstructing the vision. Enough cannot be said to expose the folly of this barbarous practice of poisoning healthy human beings.—Mr. M., New York City, May 5, 1914.

No. 2. After reading your Warning against having children vaccinated I thought I would take the liberty to write you. I was always against vaccination, but was told my little girl could not enter the Public School unless I had her vaccinated, so I had our own Doctor come in. Before she was vaccinated she was perfectly well, but her arm turned black and she was out of her head at times. We were both afraid she would have blood poison, poor child suffered so. Her picture will show how healthy she was and the good care she got. But a short time after her arm got better she got malignant scarlet fever, and in twenty-four hours she was gone. I shall always lay it to the vaccination. I hope the time will come when the Health Board will see the mistake and allow children to go to school without having that vile stuff put in their healthy bodies. If I had another child I would keep it from school if it had to be vaccinated. I sincerely hope others will help you in your good work against vaccination.—Mrs. S., Brooklyn, N. Y., May 6, 1914.

No. 3. I know of a family in Poughkeepsie, three in number, who are terrible victims of vaccination, father and son cripples, and mother insane from grief. They have lost their home owing to the expense of operations caused from effects of vaccination. —Mrs. T., Hyde Park, N. Y., Aug. 18, 1914.

No. 4. I have been told by some people that the visiting officer would vaccinate against any one's wishes. I saw a few cases vaccinated last school term and they have not been able to attend school in one year. One child was so sick they had a doctor for four months every day, and is a cripple for life. Her head is drawn to one side. Another died of blood poison.—Mrs. V. D., Tivoli, N. Y., Aug. 22, 1914.

No. 5.   I am in earnest accord with your article in to-day's paper.   There are many deaths caused by vaccination and the blame placed on something else.   For instance, my boy James was vaccinated in Chicago some years ago.   He was eight years of age.   A week after the vaccination his feet and limbs began to swell and pain him.   Then he took so sick that 1 called in Chicago's most noted physicians and specialists to consult on the case.   They dosed, anointed, injected and did many things trying to counteract the poison, but all to no avail. The blessed, innocent little boy suffered the tortures of the damned; he wasted away and died in horrible agony.   The doctor made out his death certificate, giving the case as "heart failure."   Now I have another boy eight years of age and I will go through hell before I will suffer him to have the matter taken from a fester­ing sore of a cow and injected into his blood.   What course must I pursue to defeat vaccination in this case?—Mr. O., New York City, Sept. 5, 1914.

No. 6. I have a little boy eight years old. When he was four I found I had to have him vaccinated. I took him to my mother's family doctor. He had been our doctor for forty years and always had great faith in him, and he vaccinated my little boy who was very strong and healthy. It went into blood poison, his little arm was so big and swollen, he got feverish and sick and our doctor was there every day for about a month and he was not getting any better and finally he told me I had better get another doctor, that he could do no more and my boy was getting very bad. I went and got a special doctor. He ordered my boy taken to a hospital, and there he was, did not know what minute they would have to cut his little arm off to save his life and so sick did not know what minute he might die. I don't know of any sickness that would be worse than that was. I cannot describe it in a letter, and ever since he has not been well, he is so thin and pale and gets tired so easy. I know it is all on account of that vaccination and now I have two little girls, twins two years old. I don't know what I would do if I had to have them vaccinated, which is indeed barbarous.   I do not wish to see any one vaccinated again and suffer as my little boy did, his arm is thinner and weaker than the other one is. I do hope something can be done so our little children won't have to be vaccinated.—Mrs. J., Herkimer, N. Y., Sept. n, 1914.

No. 7. I was made an invalid and helpless for a number of years from the effects of vaccination while attending College at Boston, Mass. If I can do anything to help you put out this practice I will be only too glad to write and give you my experience in full. It put me out of teaching and earning my living for ten years.—Miss S., Hoosick, N. Y., Sept. 15, 1914.

No. 8. In answer to your kind letter expressing your deep sympathy for the loss of my two boys, I thank you, and will try and enlighten you the best I can. The virus that was used to vaccinate my children was the product of H. K. Mulford Co. of Philadelphia. My family doctor and the consulting physician diagnosed the case as Tetanus, caused by the virus. The children were hurried to the Penna. Hospital at Philadelphia, where the hospital physicians made the same statement. Chas. and Fred were two very healthy boys, never had a sick day, that is, to require the services of a doctor, they were vaccinated Sept. 2d, showed no signs of illness. Monday evening, Sept. 27th, complained of sore throat, Tuesday grew worse, bodies began to get rigid. Operated on about 5:30 and given Antitoxin. Died 2:35 and 5:25 Wednesday a.m. In talking with a Mr. G. who is investigating the matter, he claims that a person who has been vaccinated may have smallpox and not show it outwardly, so that the preventive is as bad as the disease, and I consider it an unnecessary operation forced upon the people.—Mr. H. P., Burlington, N. J., Oct. 7, 1915.

To this last letter the following answer was sent:

Dear Sir: I thank you very much for your kind letter of Oct. 7th, giving me particulars as to the death of your two precious little boys from lockjaw caused by vaccination, and I hardly know how to express my horror at this misfortune and my sympathy with you in what, as you say, was an "entirely unnecessary operation forced upon the people": but I have now determined, from a knowledge of a large number of cases like yours, which are occurring all over the country, to do everything I can for the balance of my life to bring about the repeal and prohibition of all compulsory vaccination in every shape and form as nothing less than a medical crime on the people. Within the last week three children have been killed in our own city from this evil.
I have spent fully twenty-five thousand dollars in the last year in a newspaper campaign in our State to enlighten the people as to the great falsehoods and fatalities of compulsory vaccination and to bring about the repeal of the law, but the medical powers in the State, which profit by vaccination, had too much influence in the legislature and the law was only slightly altered, so as to take compulsory vaccination off the country districts and put it stronger on the ten large cities in the State where the enforcement of the law will be more profitable to the vaccinators. This new law is, "however, so bad and illegal that I think it can be easily invalidated in our courts, and I shall continue to fight it until it is completely removed from our statute books as one of the greatest out­rages on children ever committed by man.
    I believe that a special act should be passed by our legisla­tures to indemnify all parents whose children have been killed by these dangerous and unnecessary medical operations forced upon the.people by an unwise law, and I will endeavor to have such an act introduced in our State at the next session of our legislature and would suggest that you propose a similar law in your own State.
(Signed)    Chas. M. Higgins. Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 14, 1915.


4913 Church Avenue, Flatbush,
Brooklyn, N. Y., July 27, 1915. Hon. Elihu Root,
President Constitutional Convention, Albany, N. Y.
    On October 16, 1914, I was compelled by the Board of Education of New York to have my son, Chester Stanley Waters, vaccinated as a condition to enter school.
    The operation was performed by a Board of Health Doctor in Public School No. 135, Flatbush, Brooklyn, on that date.
    On November 8, 1914, my son was taken sick with Tetanus, a direct result of that compulsory vaccination,
    I called in our family physician, Dr. A. R. Addy, 208 Lenox Road, Flatbush, who examined my boy, found a large vacci­nation wound containing a very considerable quantity of pus. Having removed this and cauterized the wound, diagnosed the case as Tetanus and advised his immediate removal to Kings Co. Hospital, which was done.
    He died in Hospital on November 14, 1914, inflicting upon me a punishment beyond words to describe.
A poison of the most vile kind was injected into the pure, clean blood of my beautiful, healthy little boy (seven years of age), destroying his young life, bringing death to him in a most horrible manner.
    I learn you are engaged on an Amendment to the Constitu­tion to remove compulsory vaccination as a condition to enter school and receive education, and I would most earnestly urge you to adopt such an Amendment. My boy was killed by the enforced vaccination, killed as a condition for exercising his inalienable right to receive education.
    I appeal to you, myself, a stricken father, punished beyond description, to save other fathers and mothers from such an awful fate as has been inflicted upon me.
    Trusting God will guide you and your associates, engaged in this work, to see the frightfulness and utter uselessness of this abominable law and adopt an Amendment sufficiently strong in our State Constitution to wipe it out forever.
Protect our children!
Yours very respectfully,
(Signed)    R. C. Watkrs.

Note. The Convention failed to adopt any Amendment concerning vaccination, and all the Amendments which it did recommend were defeated by popular vote at the next election.—C. M. H.

As suggested in a previous page, there should be a special act passed by every State, which now requires compulsory vaccination in any form, to indemnify parents or relatives for any injury or death caused by vaccination forced on children or other victims by such unwise law as requires the general infliction of a compulsory disease upon the people. This law has been originated by medical dogmatism and' is continued by medical interest and falsehood, as already shown, and is of great actual profit to doctors and virus makers, but is truly "A Menace to the State." On this point see the Statue of Wisdom and Law in the frontispiece, with its wise motto which stands as a distinct rebuke to this evil law which' either should be repealed or compensated by a remedial act passed for the relief of its many victims as here suggested, for, surely, "Every Law not Based on Wisdom is a Menace to the State."

I might continue here for hundreds of pages to report "ad nauseam" shocking instances of vaccination horrors such as already shown. Indeed, I am not sure but I may have already reached, for the average reader, the point of "ad nauseam" in the many horrible instances now exposed. But I believe I could go on in this exposure to the point "ad infinitum" if all the deadly results of vaccination could be brought to public light which are now hermetically concealed by our professionally interested partisans of vaccination who now control our Departments of Health and Vital Statistics and can conceal their grave mistakes as they please.

Physically shocking as are the vaccination horrors which I have already exposed, they are not, morally, so shocking as the awful medical mendacity or ignorance and presumption which constantly asserts the perfect harmlessness of vaccination and denies its responsibility for frequent disastrous effects on human health and life.

I will now give some examples of this gross medical mendacity from some of the so-called high medical authorities as found in Government Reports, Health Department Bulletins, leading Encyclopedias and Medical Books in this country and England which will clearly illustrate my serious charge and show that, usually, the higher the alleged authority is, the more false and exaggerated his statements are, and the more easily refuted, as I will soon prove.

There is one Government Report on vaccination in the Philippine Islands, which is often quoted by vaccinators to show the utter harmlessness of vaccination, which claims that from three to five millions of vaccinations have been performed on the population of the Philippines, without a single injury or death! Now, this reckless report might be made correct if slightly amended by the Goddess of Truth to read as follows: "Three to five millions vaccinated without a single injury or death"— which has ever been honestly acknowledged! It is, of course, shamefully false on its face to say that three to five millions of vaccinations were ever inflicted in the Philippines or anywhere else without any injuries or deaths; and the mind which can accept such a statement without a big logical and moral squirm does not understand the real nature of vaccination, the facts of vital statistics, or the first principles of mere mathe­matical chances, proportions and probabilities, as I will now show.

In the first place, a million is such a gigantic number that any person who has any disrespect for or trifles with it is not fit to discuss this subject. For example: if a man were to live for a million days he would have to be about three thousand years old! Whereas the average life of a man is much less than fifty years or about one-sixtieth of a million days! Now, if a man were to subject himself for the whole average lifetime of fifty years, or one-sixtieth of a million days, to the ordinary, benign, and necessary conditions of breathing air, drinking water and milk and eating food, he could not possibly do this without at some time contracting some disease and possible death from these perfectly normal, necessary, and benign conditions of breathing, eating and drinking, as most of our diseases and infections are admittedly contracted through these three benign sources! Yet our Government-trifler in millions wants us to believe that you could inflict on the human body—millions of times—not a purely benign action, but the purely and doubly malign act of vaccination, which consists in first wounding the body and then injecting into this wound a virulent septicemic infection, without causing a single injury or death! In other words, the doubly malign act—wounding and infecting the human body with a complex pus infection—is utterly harmless and less injurious than the purely benign acts of breathing, eating and drinking, which demonstrably cannot be practised for one-sixtieth of a million days by any human being without a possible serious injury or death!

Here is surely the "reductio ad absurdum" which shows that such a reckless statement of the harmlessness of vaccination by the millions is, of course, a stupid and shameful medical false­hood on its face and is pretty close to being a medical crime on the people, as any honest doctor or intelligent layman must know who has given any serious consideration to this subject, or who has any idea of what vaccination is, or who knows anything of disease infections, vital statistics and the laws of mere mathematical chances and probabilities.

Indeed, every competent doctor knows that you could not sub­ject the' human body to a mere pin scratch for a million times without causing several serious injuries or possible deaths from resulting infections. And every competent doctor and student of vital statistics knows also that there are actually more deaths caused every year by mere pin scratches and trifling cuts, wounds and abrasions, resulting in lockjaw, septicemia, erysipelas and other infections than from the dreaded smallpox itself.

Is it not, therefore, rather strange, Mr. President, that vaccination should be reported as so utterly harmless in the distant Philippines, where we can not easily get at the records, when we know it is so deadly in the nearby England and America, where the accessible records show that it causes, frequently, more deaths than smallpox, as I have already proved? For example: the great English Commission on Vaccination found that deaths from vaccination were sometimes as high as seventy deaths per million vaccinated. This is twice as high as the mortality from smallpox in the United States, which for five years, from 1901 to 1905, including our last great epidemic period of 1901 and 1902, averaged only thirty-four deaths per million population! See U. S. Mortality Statistics for 1907, page 40. The Reports of the Registrar General of England for 1906, 1907 and 1908 give a death-rate from infantile vaccination in those years which runs as high as forty-two deaths per million children vaccinated! Here we see that, according to some of our highest statistical authorities, vaccination is not harmless, but is so very harmful that its ratio of mortality per million vaccinated is sometimes twice as great as the ratio of smallpox mortality per million population, and including an epidemic period!

We therefore think, Mr. President, that these points and facts make sufficient answer to, and refutation of, the shocking medical lie that vaccination is perfectly harmless, and, per contra, prove that general vaccination is actually more dangerous to public health and human life to-day than natural smallpox, just as that great medical blunder of a past century—smallpox inoculation—was proved to be more dangerous than the natural disease and was finally prohibited by penal law. And I feel sure that compulsory vaccination will follow the same course and be legally prohibited for the same reason in the present century.

As a lifelong student of this subject I have become convinced that the whole cult and practice of general public vaccination and particularly all compulsory vaccination, like all great in trenched evils, has originated in falsehood, has continued in falsehood, and now exists on both falsehood and concealment, viz.: falsehood as to its absolute efficiency and certainty in protecting the individual against smallpox; falsehood as to the necessity of general vaccination to prevent smallpox epidemics; and gross falsehood as to its perfect safety and freedom from danger to human health and life.

Now, I do not think that I have ever seen a grosser illustration of the truth of this charge than can be found in the special article on Vaccination published in the Monthly Bulletin or Health News for February, 1914, issued by the New York State Department of Health at Albany, which contains what I believe to be shocking falsehoods, fallacies, and exaggerations which even a tyro in the investigation of this subject could easily refute, as I will now show. All these fallacies have been issued with an air of gospel truth, to instruct the public, and to try to justify the extreme efforts of our department officers and medical doctors to force compulsory vaccination on every child and adult in this State as not only absolutely necessary for pub­lic health, but as the only known means to prevent smallpox epidemics, and as being an operation which is wholly beneficial and entirely safe and harmless tor human health and life. I shall now give examples of the chief and worst of these medical falsehoods and follow with their refutation, as a duty clearly due to public truth and right.

First Falsehood: This official Bulletin at page 48 tells us concerning the alleged efficiency and necessity of vaccination as follows:

"Nothing but vaccination can save from smallpox. . . . Cleanliness and general sanitation exert absolutely no influence upon its prevalence."

This is about as shocking, absurd and false as it can be, and coming from our highest State health officer is certainly not creditable to our public health service, but is so obviously ab­surd and untenable as to refute itself on its very face. This paragraph tells us, in effect, that dense human overcrowding, with personal and public filth spread everywhere, no sanitation or isolation anywhere, and every case of smallpox left loose and at large to spread by direct contact to every child and adult and thus infect every one right and left, as in the old unsanitary times of big and frequent epidemics—all this, our Health Com­missioner coolly tells us, would not make a bit of difference in the spread of the disease! And, per contra, the prevention of all these vile unsanitary conditions of barbarous times, with or without vaccination, would have no effect whatever to reduce the disease!

Now, of course, every person of any common sense or knowledge simply knows that these propositions are absurdly false on their face, and that we need pay no further attention to them, except to show by such horrible examples how foolish and desperate the falsehoods are that are resorted to by some doctors and health officers to try to force this dangerous medical evil of compulsory disease on every child and adult, and that on such falsehoods it is essentially based. Every unbiased stu­dent of this subject knows that efficient sanitation and hygiene have been the most effectual means for preventing and reducing all diseases and promoting public health during the last half century and that, as a matter of fact, no serious reduction of smallpox or typhoid fever has been effected in modern times except through general sanitation and hygiene, with or without vaccination.

Second Falsehood: The next major fallacy in this State Department Bulletin relates to the alleged perfect safety of vaccination, as follows:

"There is not the slightest risk in the process of vaccination when it is carried out with clean virus (now guaranteed by Government inspection) and when the vaccination itself is kept clean. 'Sore arms' come from dirt getting into the vaccination, not from the vaccine itself."

Now, if the man who wrote this falsehood knows anything extensive on this subject, he must know that what he states here is not true. And he knows also that the government does not really guarantee any virus, and that no such thing as "clean" virus is now, or ever was, made or can be made; that is, no virus without some; or many, dangerous suppurative disease germs of one kind or another, known or unknown, which will not be likely, some time or other, in some persons, to bring about a dangerous infection of the system with possible serious or fatal injury, and that, as a matter of fact, such infections are occur­ring constantly in children and adults from the various existing brands of "clean," "inspected," and "certified" virus now in use. Furthermore, as to this evil being caused only by "dirt" getting into the wound, this audacious writer must also know that this dangerous or fatal infection can and does come into the wound both directly as a "primary" infection from the virus itself, and as a "secondary" infection from "dirt" in or about the wound, and he must know very well, if at all competent to write on this subject for public instruction, that one kind of infection is about as common and as fatal as the other, and that both are almost equally chargeable to the operation of vaccination itself, so that to contend otherwise is merely a cowardly evasion of the truth, as has been fully proved by the shocking exhibits of vaccination horrors shown herein.

From the article on Vaccination in one of our leading Ameri­an books of reference, the "International Encyclopedia," published by Dodd, Mead & Co. in 1904, I take this surprising gem of falsehood, as follows:

"There is absolutely no danger of transmitting disease by means of bovine virus!'

Please note that the author of this falsehood is not content with saying merely that there is no danger, but absolutely no danger. And when he was asked for an explanation or "authority" for this outrageous statement, this is what he answered:

"You ask for the authority for the statement in the International Encyclopedia: There is absolutely no danger of transmitting disease by means of bovine virus.'
"I cannot refer you to an authoritative work on medicine where this statement can be found, but it is commonly repeated by professors of medicine to students, and was put away in my memory as an established fact many years ago."

The rank stupidity and falsity of the statement first quoted will be evident when we recite the fact that the very basic purpose and function of the bovine virus is to transmit the disease cow-smallpox from calves to man, as an alleged preventive of another disease, natural smallpox, and yet this high medical authority, writing for the information of the trusting public in one of our leading books of reference, solemnly tells us that it is absolutely impossible to transmit any disease by it, and that this doctrine has been preached to students for years as an established fact! If, however, he meant to say that it is absolutely impossible to transmit any other disease besides cow-smallpox or "vaccinia," this statement would, of course, be equally false. Even of such generally harmless and benign mediums as air, water and milk, it could not be sanely or truthfully said by any one that "there is absolutely no danger of transmitting disease" by them, for we all know that some of the most common and fatal diseases are often transmitted by these very benign mediums, air, water and milk. But to make such a reckless statement about a dangerous complicated disease culture or virus, a revolting extract of pustules, is not only grossly untruthful, but it is hardly even sane; yet this is a good sample of some of the statements with which our high medical authorities have misled the trusting public mind. And speaking of "sanity," it may provide us with a rather laughable emotion, at this point in our very grave subject, if I now cite the fact that at the time this high medical authority made this most false and absurd statement, as to the utter harmlessness of vaccination, he actually held the most high and significant office of— "President of the New York State Commission on Lunacy"!

The article on Vaccination in the Encyclopedia Britannica, in the old edition preceding the last or current edition, was written by Dr. Chas. Creighton of London, a well known English doctor who, by long study, has become an opponent of vaccination, and is the author of several books exposing its fallacies. When Dr. Creighton first got the commission to write the article for the Encyclopedia he was a pro-vaccinist, like many other doctors, but to fit himself to write a full and impartial article which would give both sides of the subject he resolved to make a thorough study of it, pro and con. This study convinced him of the dangerous nature of vaccination to health and life, its limited or exaggerated value as a protection against smallpox, and its illogical or unscientific basis as a medical remedy; and his critical article on this subject, when it first appeared in the leading Encyclopedia, made a sensation in the medical world and has been a thorn in the side of pro-vaccinists ever since.

Now, what will impartial students of this subject say when I cite the fact that the article on Vaccination in the last or current edition of the Britannica is written, not by a man who is impartial and professionally disinterested in the subject, as was Dr. Creighton, and who tried to give both sides of the subject freely, but, on the contrary, by a man who is actually a manufacturer or inventor of vaccine virus and has, therefore, necessarily, a professional interest and bias to conceal the fail­ures and dangers of vaccination as far as he can?   Surely, the editors of the Britannica made a great moral and logical mistake when they selected any man to write so important an article on a much disputed subject in this great book of refer­ence who had any professional or other interest or bias in this subject.    Now, the biased and interested author of this article in the last edition is none other than Dr. S. Monckton Copeman of London, a strong pro-vaccinist, who claims to be the original inventor of the so-called "glycerinated virus" now in general use for vaccination.   The idea of adding glycerine to the virus is to kill the many dangerous disease germs or infections it is known to contain, but to preserve the germ of smallpox, or "cowpox" intact.   This is, of course, an admission that before the use of glycerinated virus vaccination was very dangerous and likely to cause many infections in the human body, but since the adoption of glycerinated virus—Dr. Copeman's invention—it is now claimed that vaccination is rendered safe and harmless.   This is, of course, a false claim, as I have already shown, and will further show in a succeeding paragraph.

Now, this greatly biased and one-sided article of Dr. Copeman—the maker or inventor of glycerinated virus—in our greatest Encyclopedia, is surely a good illustration of my charge that the trusting public mind is constantly misled, whether inten­tionally or unintentionally I know not, by some of our highest medical authorities on the whole subject of vaccination, and particularly as to its alleged harmlessness. Thus, when Dr. Copeman, who is regarded as one of the leading authorities on modern vaccination, comes to consider the dangers of vaccination, he heads his paragraph, "Alleged Injurious Effects," thus implying that the injuries are only "alleged" and not real, and he goes on to argue or imply that—due to his invention—the dangers and injuries are now trifling or negligible, but tacitly admits or implies that before his invention of glycerinated virus the dangers were very serious, whereas, with his invention, vaccination is now practically safe and harmless.

Now, what must we think of the truth of this claim that vaccination with glycerinated virus is now safe and harmless, when, at the very time that its inventor made or implied this claim in the pages of the Encyclopedia, in the year 1910 or 1911, the vital records of his own country, in the reports of the Registrar General of England for those two years, showed that there were eight deaths from vaccination in the year 1910, and fourteen deaths from vaccination in  1911!    And these fatal vaccinations were, of course, all made with the glycerinated virus as, practically, no other kind is now used!   These vaccination deaths were all in little children under five years and they exceeded the deaths from smallpox in the same age class by fourfold in 1910 and by threefold in 1911!   That is, the deaths from vaccination under five years were eight in 1910 and fourteen in 1911; while the deaths from smallpox under five years were two in 1910 and five in 1911! The total deaths from small­pox in all ages were nineteen in 1910 and twenty-three in 1911. The four years preceding 1910 show even a worse record for vaccinal mortality than the record of 1910 and 1911, so that the record of those two years cannot be claimed as anything special or unusual.   For example, the reports of the Registrar General for 1906, 1907 and 1908 show a total of only six deaths for these three years from smallpox in the infant ages under five years —the ages most susceptible to smallpox—while for the same infant ages there is a total of fifty-three deaths for the same three years from cowpox or vaccination—nine times more infant deaths from vaccination than from smallpox!   In 1909 there is reported only one infant death from smallpox and eleven infant deaths from vaccination!

This shocking record of vaccination deaths clearly shows that the famous glycerinated vaccination of Dr. Copeman, which he virtually claims to be so safe and harmless, in our greatest book of public reference, is actually from three to ten times more fatal to children than natural smallpox, as proved by the vital records of his own country and by the highest statistical authority in the world! Surely, Mr. President, in such crushing counter facts as these, my charge of a shocking deception of the public mind, either intentional or unintentional, on the merits of vaccination by our highest medical and literary authorities, is flatly proved.

We now come to a different style of medical falsehood on the effects of vaccination which, while honestly admitting its dangerous nature, yet tries to minimize the dangers as much as possible and reduce them to the relatively immaterial. This is a shameful equivocation of the truth and an absurd contradiction of facts, as I will now prove out of the mouth of the apologist himself. I now refer to the statements of Dr. Milton J. Rosenau, who is one of our highest authorities in this country on vaccination and other special medical subjects. He was for several years Director of the United States Hygienic Laboratory at Washington, where he made many investigations into the nature of vaccine virus, its impurities, dangers, etc., and has made official reports on different subjects for the said Laboratory and for the United States Public Health Service. He is now professor of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene in Harvard University, and is the author of several books, one of which, "Preventive Medicine and Hygiene," published by D. Appleton & Co. in 1914, I will now quote from. In this book, on page 19, under the head of "Dangers and Complications" of vaccination, Dr. Rosenau states as follows:

"However, vaccination is not always a harmless procedure; it must be looked upon as the production of an acute infectious disease, and, although the disease is always mild and trivial, it must not be treated as trifling. The chief danger lies in the fact that we have produced an open wound, which is subject to the complications of any wound. Even a pin prick or a razor scratch may result in death. While the aggregate number of deaths resulting from the complications of vaccination may be considerable, the aggregate of the individual risk is so small as to be disregarded, especially when proper precautions are taken."

Here, surely, are some honest admissions and some queer denials, and I would now kindly ask you, Mr. President, to re­read this quotation carefully, and I think you will find it an interesting verbal and psychological study, showing the typical sophistry and casuistry of the whole vaccination cult which well illustrates a witty saying of the late Elbert Hubbard, who was a great student and opponent of vaccination, viz.: 'The great trouble with vaccination is that it vaccinates the mind'   And he meant by this that the poison which the vaccinators put into the blood of their victims seems to react morally on themselves so that it poisons and blinds their minds and renders them unable to see their own shocking absurdities and mendacities in their false excuses and defences for the serious evils of vaccination.   The great Gladstone was reported to have said that he was led to oppose compulsory vaccination not so much by the arguments of the anti-vaccinists as from the falsehoods of the vaccinators.

You will note that all the medical authorities previously quoted assert positively that vaccination is perfectly safe and harmless and never causes any serious injury or death, except what might be due to the carelessness of the vaccinated persons themselves, which statement I have proved by overwhelming evidence to be a most outrageous medical falsehood. Per contra, the last medical authority quoted honestly admits that vaccination is not always harmless and that it always consists in inflicting an acute infectious disease on the human body, but that this inflicted disease practically never does any harm and may be disregarded. In other words, the policy of this medical authority and high representative of the vaccination cult, in the statement quoted, seems to be to honestly admit all he dare, and gracefully deny all he can! And for this honesty we must give him a layman's thanks, for he does really admit a great deal, and where he attempts to deny he really admits more, as I will soon show.

Now, it is obvious that the infliction of "an acute infectious disease," deliberately and extensively, on the human body, is a vicious and dangerous practice, per se and prima facie, and cannot be continued indefinitely without serious injuries, as I have already proved, and hence Dr. Rosenau contradicts himself at the very outset in his statement or apology for vaccination. In his next phrase he makes the still more surprising statement that this inflicted disease is "always mild and trivial," which assertion is undoubtedly a falsehood! And Dr. Rosenau must know as well as any doctor or layman in this country that this assertion is false, and per contra that this inflicted disease—vaccination—is sometimes very severe and fatal and far worse than natural smallpox itself, and that it often causes more annual deaths than smallpox, as I have already proved by overwhelming evidence and by the highest statistical records in the world! I would, therefore, here respectfully suggest that Dr. Rosenau make, some apology to his readers for this falsehood or mistake, and correct this statement as soon as possible in the next edition of his book.

To emphasize and dispose of this serious error of Dr. Rosenau I will now show out of his own mouth how he stultifies and contradicts himself, and logically admits that vaccination is not "always mild and trivial," but is often quite dangerous and fatal.   For example, he says:

"And although the disease is always mild and trivial, yet it must not be treated as trifling."

This phrase, just quoted, is, surely, a rich verbal and logical study of medical sophistry and equivocation. Vaccination, this medical champion tells us, is always a "trivial" disease, but it is not a "trifling" disease. This is morally and logically equivalent to telling us that vaccination is trivial and it is not trivial! In other words, he asserts in one breath what he denies in the next, or contradicts himself in successive breaths! This is so, because the dictionaries show that the two words "trifling" and "trivial" have exactly the same meaning and are synonymous and identical, so that "trivial" is defined as "trifling," and "trifling" is defined as "trivial." This, therefore, morally and logically, means a confession out of his own mouth that the inflicted disease, vaccination, is not always either trivial or trifling, but is often very dangerous and deadly, which is, of course, the exact and demonstrable truth, and the scholarly Dr. Rosenau is the last man who can plead ignorance of this truth. Indeed, in another paragraph of his contradictory statement, he absolutely acknowledges this serious danger of vaccination while appar­ently trying to conceal or deny it. For example, he makes this conclusive and crushing admission that:

"While the aggregate number of deaths resulting from the complications of vaccination may be considerable, the aggregate of the individual risk is so small as to be disregarded."

Now, if the aggregate number of deaths from vaccination is "considerable," then it is clearly proved, out of his own mouth, that vaccination is not always mild or trivial, but just the opposite, viz., frequently very dangerous and deadly, thus again proving the case against vaccination out of the mouth of its own defenders! As to the quibble or sophistry that "the aggregate of the individual risk is so small as to be disregarded" this is also a fallacy and falsehood, because this cannot be really true if the aggregate number of deaths is so "considerable," and particularly not when we have shown that the deaths from vaccina­tion frequently exceed the deaths from smallpox, as this proves that 'the individual risk from general vaccination is far greater than from natural smallpox, and, therefore, in the long run, vaccination is as much to be avoided as smallpox, if not more so.

Webster's Dictionary gives three meanings for "Considerable," as follows: "Worthy of consideration"; "notable"; "rather large in amount."

The Comprehensive Standard Dictionary gives the meaning of "Considerable" as: "Of noteworthy size, quantity or importance."

It will therefore be seen that Dr. Rosenau, necessarily and logically, admits that the deaths and injuries from vaccination are not "trivial" but "rather large in amount," and "of noteworthy size, quantity or importance," thus proving our case out of the mouth of our opponents.

No chapter on the mendacities of vaccination would be complete without including the great foundation and monumental falsehoods of Dr. Edward Jenner, who was the alleged "discoverer" or inventor of "Vaccination," by which term is meant the inoculation of cowpox from cow to man and thence from arm to arm, in distinction from the old direct smallpox inoculation from human to human; and it may now be interesting and profitable to devote a few paragraphs to these great falsehoods of the arch-vaccinator himself.

Jenner's original claims for vaccination were stated, positively, in his Petition to Parliament March 17, 1802, asking for a reward for his alleged "discovery" in these words:

"That your petitioner, having discovered that a disease which occasionally exists in a particular form among cattle, known by the name of the cow-pox, admits of being inoculated on the human frame with the most perfect ease and safety, and is attended with the singularly beneficial effect of rendering through life the person so inoculated perfectly secure from the infection of the smallpox."—See "History and Pathology of Vaccination.," by Dr. Edgar M. Crookshank, London, 1889, page 173, Vol. I.

Now, every proposition in the above statement is a shocking falsehood, as can be easily proved by a few moments' consideration. In the above quotation the emphasis is mine but the words are Jenner's, and I have emphasized the words to show clearly where the rank and glaring falsehoods are which make this short statement a very tissue of falsehoods, as will soon appear.

In the first place, it was a downright falsehood for Jenner to claim that he had "discovered" that a disease known as "cow-pox" could be inoculated on the human frame and that this inoculation would act as a preventive of smallpox, for it is obvious to every student of the history of vaccination that Jenner made no such original "discovery," but that this "discovery" was made by the milkmaids and dairy farmers of rural England who had long known and used it, and this "discovery" was given by them to Jenner, who then falsely claimed it as his own "discovery" and finally got a reward of thirty thousand pounds from Parliament for this false claim!

Thus does History show us that vaccination commenced, at its very outset, with gross falsehood and also in what would be called in our day a gigantic piece of medical "graft," and it has been continued on a similar basis, more or less, ever since.

The second great falsehood in the original claim of Jenner was the shocking and reckless statement that the cowpox was perfectly harmless and could be inoculated on the human body with "perfect safety" which false claim has been kept up ever since by the mendacious successors of Jenner, as I have already shown.   This claim of the "perfect safety" of cowpox was, of course, perfectly false, for not only were some of Jenner's own experiments and tests on patients harmful, but his whole scheme of arm to arm vaccination was soon proved to be so dangerous that it was long ago abandoned and prohibited like its evil pre­decessor—smallpox inoculation—and, for that reason, is not used to-day, being replaced by what is known as "Bovine Vaccination," which is direct inoculation of so-called "cowpox" from cattle to man instead of from man to man or arm to arm as used by Jenner.   Now, this modern "Bovine" vaccination I believe to be even more dangerous than the old Jennerian arm to arm type, because it involves the extensive diseasing of two classes of animals, cattle and mankind, and has been the cause of deadly epidemics in both classes, as already proved, which was not known under the old system, and it is also guilty of now causing more deaths almost every year than natural smallpox itself, particularly among little children, as  I  have already proved beyond question.

The third great falsehood in this tissue of Jennerian mendacity is the claim that one vaccination rendered the vaccinated person "perfectly secure" "through life" from "the infection of the smallpox."   This was, of course, a most reckless and absurd claim on its face, for how could Jenner, with a few experiments and tests extending over a few years, declare with any honesty, or with any logical or scientific warrant, that cowpox inoculation gave absolute security from smallpox for life? This reckless claim was, of course, soon proved to be a rank falsehood by the wide-spread failure of vaccination to protect from smallpox as soon as the vaccinated persons were exposed to actual infection or epidemic conditions where they readily contracted the disease, as they do to this day notwithstanding their vaccination! A new apology had therefore to be invented for this wholesale failure of vaccination soon after its first adoption, and this was made by abandoning the false claim of unlimited life protection from one vaccination and substituting the modified claim of a limited protection for seven years—more or less —and the consequent necessity of frequent or periodical re-vaccinations to get any continued or reliable protection from the operation.

Now Jenner's original false and absurd claim of unlimited or life protection from one vaccination was probably partly due to his ignorance of the real nature and history of smallpox and his credulous adoption of the old fallacy and superstition, in com­mon use, that one attack of smallpox gave sure immunity for life from a second attack, which proposition never really had any scientific basis in theory or fact, as it has been repeatedly proved that smallpox may, and often does, occur two or three times in the same person, whether vaccinated or unvaccinated, and that there is no regularity or certainty in the alleged protection given either by smallpox or vaccination, but that im­munity depends largely on sanitary, hygienic and constitutional conditions. In fact, some students seem to think that the per­son who has once had smallpox is more likely to have it again than one who has never had the disease! It was, therefore, at this first demonstrated failure of vaccination to protect from smallpox that Jenner's chief assistant, Dr. James Moore, wrote a very interesting little book called "The History of Small Pox," London, 1815. The chief purpose of this book was to apologize for the failure of vaccination to protect from smallpox, as originally falsely claimed by Jenner, by showing that even smallpox does not protect with certainty for life or any other period, but that the same person may have smallpox two or three times in succession, instances of which are cited all through the book, thus making the ingenious or crafty plea for vaccination that it cannot be expected to give any more protection than smallpox gives; and therefore reliance must not be placed on one vaccination alone for life, but protection can only be obtained by re-vaccinations repeated at frequent intervals of a few years!

It will thus be seen that Jenner completely abandoned his false and reckless claim of perfect protection from smallpox for life by one vaccination, for which he got his big graft or money prize from the English government; but, please note, he did not make this retreat or acknowledge his great mistake until after he had pocketed his big reward of thirty thousand pounds for his shamefully false claim of the unlimited protection and per­fect safety of vaccination!

We have seen in the preceding chapter how the original false and reckless claim of Dr. Jenner for absolute protection for life from one vaccination was soon abandoned when put to the actual test of smallpox epidemics and that a modified position was then taken in the necessity of re-vaccination in certain periods of about seven years, more or less. This limited claim has, however, been also abandoned in recent years and the term of alleged vaccinal protection has been getting successively shorter and shorter, until it has now fallen to the ridiculously short protective period of only six months or a year for each vaccination or re-vaccination! This seems to be the present position of our most recent medical authorities and advanced vaccinators, which is not only a great shrinkage in protective claim but is very interesting and significant in that it closely approaches, and admits, the rational position of the anti-vaccinators who have contended consistently and persistently from the days of Jenner that vaccination, at the best, gave merely a limited im­munity of only a few months, more or less, and, in some cases, in very susceptible persons, gave no immunity; and that frequent and repeated vaccinations are more dangerous as being multiple and cumulative infections of an artificial or inflicted disease than beneficial as the preventive of a natural disease.

To show the present position of advanced pro-vaccinators on this point and their virtual agreement with anti-vaccinators as to the very limited period of vaccinal protection and the necessity of frequent repetitions, I will now quote from a recent high medical authority, viz., Dr. Robert Olesen, of the U. S. Public Health Service, stationed at Manila in the Philippine Islands, which is supposed to be one of the greatest fields in the world for practical experience with smallpox and vaccination.
In an elaborate article by Dr. Olesen printed in the New York Medical Record of March 4, 1911, he makes these very serious statements as to the necessity of frequent re-vaccina­tions and the short duration of protection from each vaccination, as follows:

'The Necessity for Re-Vaccination.—There is abundant reason for believing that a person who has been successfully vaccinated is absolutely protected against smallpox during a period varying from six to twelve months, probably the latter. After this time his immunity may or may not continue indefinitely. . . .
"In the absence of means of determining accurately the length of perfect resistance it is best to re-vaccinate once a year."

Now here we plainly see that this Government Expert after long experience in the fertile field of the Philippines admits clearly and positively the very limited protective power of vaccination, so that it is practically evanescent in duration, or extends over a few months only, or at most can not, or should not, be relied on for sure and safe protection longer than from six months to one year!   And for this reason Dr. Olesen carefully advises that "it is best to re-vaccinate once a year!"

Now, surely, this modest position of Dr. Olesen as to the short duration of protection and the necessity of re-vaccination once a year is very similar to the position of the anti-vaccinators, but very different from the positive claim of Dr. Jenner on which vaccination started and for which he got his big prize or "graft" of thirty thousand pounds for the grossly false claim of his alleged "discovery" that one vaccination would give absolute protection from smallpox for life!

I will now give another great authority on vaccination, viz., the famous and dangerous "Vaccination Creed" of the Chicago Board of Health, issued in 1906, and still in use, which limits the protective power of vaccination still more than Dr. Olesen and makes it absolutely dependent on multiple or doubly re­peated vaccinations to the point of "saturation," as follows:

"After many years of experience with smallpox and vaccination, the Chicago Department of Health hereby declares:
"First: That true vaccination—repeated until it no longer takes—ALWAYS prevents smallpox. NOTHING ELSE DOES."

It may be now noted that the first and essential article of this creed, printed with its big emphatic capitals, positively states that the only vaccination that protects against smallpox is a duplicated, successive, repeated or multiple vaccination—''repeated until it no longer takes." This means that there must be at least two or three successive vaccinations or multiples of them before any "protection" is obtained, that is, at least one or more successful "takes" and one subsequent vaccination which fails to take! In other words, we must vaccinate repeatedly until it takes, and then vaccinate repeatedly until it fails to take, to get any protection; and this, in some cases, may of course require from two to four or six successive vaccinations! And yet this is the only kind of redoubled vaccination which this famous, or infamous, creed gravely and emphatically tells us in full and loud capitals "ALWAYS" prevents smallpox and that "NOTHING ELSE DOES"! And while Dr. Olesen tells us that one successful vaccination, repeated at least once every year, is a fairly reliable protection against smallpox, yet this "Chicago Creed" positively tells us that such "successful" yearly vaccination is no good at all unless followed at once by another vaccination which is not successful! What do you now think, Mr. President, of the absurdity and confusion in these vaccination theories? And what do you think of the great personal repulsiveness and great medical danger of these theories in calling for so many and such frequent inoculations of disease virus or blood poison to give alleged protection from the so-called dangerous disease of smallpox which ordinarily kills less people every year than lightning and which in an epidemic year kills less than ordinary measles or whooping-cough kills every year?

Now while such wholesale and repeated or redoubled or sat­urated vaccinations for every person, every year, would undoubtedly be a most profitable thing for vaccinating doctors and vaccine makers and would extend the use of vaccine virus ten to one hundred fold, yet it is very doubtful whether this would be any benefit to public health. On the contrary, this would be the most grave menace to private and public health that could be conceived; for, whereas, the limited vaccination now practiced actually causes more deaths per year than small­pox, particularly in little school children, what would happen to our precious children and our brave soldiers and sailors if we were to adopt the horribly dangerous theories of multiple or re­doubled or "saturated" vaccination every year for each person, according to the "Creeds" of Dr. Olesen and the Chicago Board of Health, which these experts assure us is the only way to get any certain protection from smallpox?

Now if only one vaccination were required for life protection, it would, obviously, not involve as much risk from vaccinal infections or "complications," such as Lockjaw, Septicemia, Meningitis and Pneumonia; but if the vaccinations have to be repeated every few months or a year as Dr. Olesen directs, or, furthermore, if they have to be redoubled and repeated "until it no longer takes," as in the "Chicago Creed," then the infecting risk is obviously very different and is so much increased with each repeated inoculation that the danger of these repeated and cumulative infections from the artificial or inflicted septicemic disease called "cowpox" becomes much worse than the danger from the natural disease, smallpox, so that the patient is thus more likely to suffer and die from the "cure" rather than from the "disease," as now frequently happens from vaccinations, as I have already abundantly proved by shocking examples in these pages.

If, therefore, it were ever really true that one vaccination gave sure protection from smallpox for life and that the act of vaccination was in itself perfectly safe and harmless, as Jenner positively claimed, vaccination might then of course be a grand thing, of immense benefit to the human race, and might perhaps deserve all the good things that have been said about it by its interested flatterers and false advocates! But, of course, these big claims of life protection and perfect safety never were true but have been the gigantic falsehoods on which the great evil of compulsory vaccination has been justified by the medical profession and forced by it upon the people for many years past with great damage to human health and life—how much will never be known—and with great ethical disgrace to the medical profession itself, as I have already proved, and from which dis­grace the profession should, surely, free itself at an early day for the sake of professional honor and decency if not for the sake of human right and safety, health and life.


We have just seen in the preceding chapter that high medical authorities positively assure us that vaccination gives no protection against smallpox unless it is done freshly once a year and is also then done repeatedly, "until it no longer takes" which will surely require at least two successive vaccinations and may require from two to three, four or more successive vaccinations each year! Now let us seriously ask here: How many persons are there in the civil population or in the Army and Navy who have ever been, or are now, vaccinated in this way, viz., regularly once a year and then vaccinated repeatedly until the condition of vaccinal saturation is reached where "it no longer takes"? I firmly believe that no well informed doctor, student or statistician will deny that not five per cent, of the civil population or of the Army and Navy has ever been vac­cinated according to this rule and system which the experts assure us is the only safe and certain rule for vaccinal protection from smallpox! What, then, keeps the general population and the men of the Army and Navy so free from smallpox that for the generation past there are ordinarily less annual deaths from smallpox than from lightning? Surely it can not be vaccination that is responsible for this freedom from smallpox in modern times when not five per cent, of the population is vaccinated so that it can have any protection from smallpox!

The extreme pro-vaccinator has, however, long and loudly claimed, and has deceived himself and the trusting public with this false claim, that general vaccination is practically the sole and only thing that has brought about the modern reduction of smallpox or that can ever reduce smallpox! But this claim is obviously absurd and false on its face when we have already seen that not five per cent, of the population is vaccinated in such a way as can give any protection, and that ninety-five per cent, of the vaccinated population has no effective vaccinal protection whatever!

This false claim that vaccination has been the chief cause of the reduction in smallpox in modern times is further positively disproved by the flagrant fact that countries which are most extensively vaccinated have had the worst epidemics in modern times, such as the case of Japan cited on page 53; and that as a rule in all smallpox epidemics the great majority of cases always occur in well vaccinated subjects and the minority in unvaccinated subjects as officially acknowledged in the last epidemic in New York City in 1901 and 1902, cited on page 204.

Surely, therefore, vaccination cannot be solely responsible for the great modern reduction of smallpox, but, per contra, there have  been  some great benign, natural  and artificial  conditions which have intervened in human life since the old days of big smallpox epidemics and the adoption of vaccination, which benign conditions have brought about the great decline in smallpox—and not the unnatural and irrational condition of vaccination which has been falsely credited with this result. And it must be obvious that benign conditions which act by the prevention and reduction of disease are more likely to produce this result than a remedy like vaccination, which means the actual propagation and infliction of disease.   Now what are these benign conditions?   They are clearly of two kinds, "Natural" and "Artificial."    They are, first, natural, that is, some pervasive natural changes in conditions of human life, which are more or less unknown or not yet fully understood in their exact nature, but which have surely brought about a great reduction in the general death-rate and also in specific death-rates from several deadly diseases, in which no remedy such as vaccination has ever been used, and yet the general death-rate and the death-rates of these particular diseases have been reduced in modern times even more than smallpox has been reduced since the use of vaccination.   For a few examples of these greatly reduced diseases we might mention Bubonic Plague, Epidemic Erysipelas, Typhus Fevers, Cholera, Scurvy, etc., etc.   All of these terrible diseases which were once as bad or worse than smallpox have been not only reduced more than smallpox in modern times, but most of them have practically been totally obliterated in modern life, so that they have now become almost medical curiosities, and yet no such thing as vaccination has been used in this reduction. The other conditions which have brought about this reduction of these deadly diseases are the artificial and purely benign conditions of Sanitation, Hygiene and Isolation. Now if these safe and benign natural and arti­ficial conditions have, undeniably, brought about the reduction or obliteration of these terrible diseases without any vaccina­tion, is it not most logical and reasonable to conclude that these same safe and benign conditions have been the chief cause in reducing smallpox also, and that the burden of proof is clearly on the pro-vaccinators to prove, if they can, the preposterous claim that vaccination is the chief cause of this great reduction of smallpox?

At this point this striking historic and medical fact should be distinctly remembered that before the adoption of vaccination, and for some time afterwards, there were practically no such remedies known or used as Sanitation, Hygiene or Isolation. These rational defenses against smallpox and other diseases are in fact of very recent usage and have practically been used, in any extended or efficient manner, only within the last generation! And the reduction in smallpox practically dates from this usage and is proportional to the extent and regularity of this usage. See the great success of sanitation and isolation, etc., in reducing smallpox, without vaccination, in the English City of Leicester and the general effect of sanitation in recent times as set forth in the book, "The Vaccination Question," by Dr. Millard, London, 1914.

It may therefore be very hard for us to realize this fact in modern times, that in the old unsanitary days of big epidemics and deadly plagues, the general population had no clear idea at all of the actual contagiousness of epidemic diseases or that they were spread by actual contact or close proximity, from one person to the other, and therefore no effort whatever was made to isolate cases of dangerous disease like smallpox, which were thus commonly left freely exposed in public and private until they spread like wildfire through the whole community in frequent and widespread epidemics common in those days. Per contra, the idea generally held by the people in these old, unsanitary times was that epidemic diseases were spread universally, by some general malign influence, through the air—not by contact from person to person—and that they were divine scourges sent by the wrath of God to punish man for his sins, and that it was not only useless but even impious to try to escape these scourges. Hence the old barbarous schemes of smallpox inoculation and cowpox vaccination agreed perfectly with this barbarous medical theology, for by these remedies the sinner or penitent patient did not try to escape the wrath of God but willingly bowed to it and took the scourge upon him­self in a mild form with the hope in Divine Mercy to escape it in its worst form! This seems to have been the medical psy­chology of vaccination in past times!


It can therefore be readily seen that, as soon as the barbarous system of deliberately inviting and spreading disease described in the preceding paragraph was abandoned, and the reckless exposure of smallpox in public and private was prevented by strict isolation and proper sanitation, smallpox epidemics were bound to decline and disappear. But this result has happened only in very recent times in advanced communities which have adopted some effective system of sanitation and isolation, and with little effect one way or the other from vaccination except that smallpox and other diseases and the general death-rate seem to be much worse where vaccination is extensively used and sanitation, isolation and hygiene are neglected, as has been proved flagrantly in the case of much vaccinated Japan, cited on page 53, and, reversely, in the case of the English City of Leicester, cited on page 22, where the best effects in reduction of smallpox and increase in general health have been produced by abandoning vaccination and relying on sanitation, isolation and hygiene for the last thirty-five years.

Now, a very interesting and convincing evidence in this direction is furnished by Dr. Jenner's chief assistant, Dr. James Moore, before quoted, who, writing over one hundred years ago, clearly recognized and admitted the truth and force of the above contention, viz., that sanitation and isolation would extinguish epidemic smallpox, without regard to vaccination; and this point I will now prove from Dr. Moore's book on 'The History of Smallpox' published in London in 1815, which seems to have been one of the first authorities to urge sanitation and isolation for the suppression of this disease.

On pages 304 to 307 in Dr. Moore's book, he gives a very clear statement of the above point, as follows:

"The plague was a less destructive distemper than the Small Pox, yet no plan similar to the quarantine laws has been established to extinguish this infection; and one which was lately proposed in Parliament was discouraged as injurious to personal freedom."
    "But surely every man susceptible of a dangerous conta­gion has a natural right to hinder persons who are contami­nated with that disease, from touching or even approaching him. The exercise of this right is a species of self defence; which for the public safety may assuredly be regulated by law, without infringing any reasonable notions of political liberty."
    "It is therefore much to be wished, that to preclude all per­sons infected with the Small Pox from mixing with the public, a law should be enacted to confine them strictly to their own houses, or in hospitals appropriated by the parishes for that purpose, as long as the infection is upon them."
    "The plan is simple, to enforce it would be easy; and the sole inconvenience would be a temporary confinement of those persons whose enlargement spreads poison through the land."
    "By such a measure, the infection of the Small Pox, for want of subjects to act upon, would necessarily decline, and soon become extinct; and multitudes of human creatures would be annually preserved from disease, blindness and death."

It will now be seen that this interesting medical and historical authority shows us that, while quarantine or isolation had been used to some extent in old times in the prevention of the plague, yet it had never been applied to smallpox, and that a law proposed in the English Parliament in 1815 to make isolation compulsory was defeated; but Dr. Moore distinctly tells us that such a law or practice, if enforced, would by itself extinguish smallpox!

Now, this admission I regard as very significant and con­clusive in this contention in coming from Dr. Moore, who was a medical authority in Jenner's day, being a member of the Royal College of Surgeons of London and Surgeon of the Second Regiment of Life Guards, and was also so close to Jenner that he dedicated his book to him, and was not only his chief assistant in the new scheme of vaccination but held the impor­tant office of "Director of the National Vaccine Establishment/' which was the government institution controlling the production of vaccine virus and the administration of public vaccination.

Surely, therefore, we could have no better authority than Dr. Moore to admit and establish our present contention against the modern evil of compulsory vaccination, viz., that there is surely something else besides vaccination that has prevented or reduced smallpox epidemics in modern times, and that something is the benign and rational remedies of sanitation and isolation with certain natural and human changes and improve­ments in conditions of human life and health; and not the irra­tional and malign remedy of propagating and inflicting general disease upon the people, as falsely taught by the extreme vaccinators.

In a speech by the Hon. John Burns, Minister of Health for England and Wales, in the House of Commons on April 11, 1912, he gave the following clear statement showing that vaccination cannot be alone credited with the reduction of small­pox, but that, as a matter of fact, smallpox had declined as vaccination was reduced and as sanitation and other benign conditions of human life had increased. These most significant facts are fully expressed in the following extract from the official speech, which speaks clearly for itself and needs no further comment here.

"I am not at all alarmed by the comparison made with Germany. ... I entertain the respect for figures tempered by fact, which every responsible man ought to have. Just in proportion as in recent years exemptions (from vaccination) have gone up from four per cent, to thirty per cent., so deaths from smallpox have declined. . . . The facts are these: I am right in giving these figures with regard to London. During the time that I have had the honor of being at the Local Government Board the following have been the deaths from smallpox in a city of 4,500,000 inhabitants: 1906, no deaths; 1907, no deaths; 1908, no deaths; 1909, two deaths; 1910, no deaths. So that in five years there have only been two deaths from smallpox in a city of 4,500,000 people. Not even Ge­many or Berlin can transcend those figures by the increasing cleanliness, increasing sobriety and greater attention paid both by the community and individuals to removing all causes of smallpox, and nearly every other disease. ... I believe that all this fear and panic, all this talk about plague and smallpox, is due to misconception and misapprehension of social facts. These diseases are in a very different position from what they were in ten, twenty, thirty or forty years ago, and it is a creditable and a happy circumstance that I, as Minister of Health for England and Wales, am enabled to state that in regard to the administration of public health no other country is comparable to ours, and I am pleased to have heard such hearty recognition of our efforts from the different speakers this afternoon."

I therefore think that this close study of vaccination facts thus far presented must convince every reasonable mind, lay or medical, that if these benign conditions of sanitation, isolation, etc., had been generally adopted and enforced for the past century, in place of the dangerous remedy of general or compulsory vaccination, smallpox would have become extinct before this time and as much of a medical curiosity as Plague, Cholera, Typhus and Scurvy now are, which at one time slaughtered their thousands every year!

I also believe that it is probably due to this evil practice of general vaccination, which is simply the propagation and infliction on the general population of actual smallpox in one of its various forms, that the pestilence of smallpox has been kept alive as a still dangerous menace to human health and life, ready to burst out into conflagration wherever vaccination is recklessly and extensively used, as in the recent case of Japan, or where sanitation is grossly neglected, instead of being now a medical curiosity, like the other great plagues of the past which we have successfully extinguished without any vaccination. And as smallpox is the only one of the ancient plagues that we have deliberately cultivated, propagated and constantly inflicted upon the human population, under a barbarous and false theory of thereby preventing disease, is it any wonder, in common sense and common logic, that we have so signally succeeded in keeping this ancient plague alive by this strange medical malpractice, while the other ancient plagues have become extinguished?


I firmly believe that vaccination should be used only, or chiefly, in smallpox hospitals, or elsewhere, by doctors and nurses whose professional duties require them to be exposed directly to smallpox infection and who necessarily have to take the professional chances of injury or infection from either the smallpox or the vaccination. If, therefore, vaccination confers any protection or immunity from smallpox, even for a short or limited time, it is, of course, proper for doctors, nurses and attendants to make use of this protection as far and as frequent as they may wish or consider necessary. It is, of course, also proper for any person, whether exposed or not exposed to small­pox, to voluntarily resort to vaccination whenever he may see fit to do so, or as his doctor may advise, as this is the unalienable right of Medical Freedom for which we contend and to which all citizens are entitled. But to force the whole population, and particularly little children, to submit to the danger­ous operation of vaccination, when the merest fraction of this population, or not one in a thousand, would ever be exposed to any probable chance of actual contact with smallpox, and therefore not requiring any protection against it, would, obviously, be a very absurd, unwise and dangerous practice; because to thus vaccinate the mass of this healthy, unexposed and unendangered population would simply be widely extending disease and infection where it did not already exist, and would be inflicting a form of artificial smallpox on the whole population which, as I have already clearly proved, might be more dangerous in the long run than the ordinary chances from natural smallpox itself. This is particularly true when I have shown from high medical authorities that vaccination gives only an evanescent protection, or immunity for short periods of time, from a few months to a year, and requires to be continued at such short intervals and doubled or repeated at each interval, which frequent repetitions greatly increase the chances of incur­ring more injury from the many vaccinations than from small­pox!

Where, however, vaccination is used by the doctors, nurses or attendants at the smallpox hospitals, or by any other person actually exposed or likely to be exposed to the disease, the case is entirely different and the burden of the chances and dangers is safely shifted and greatly reduced, as, in this case, the artificial disease of vaccination is inflicted to protect the vaccinated person from the natural disease of smallpox only where this disease already exists and actually endangers the person exposed to it. This is entirely different from the practice of inflicting and spreading disease widely where it does not already exist, as in the evil system of the wholesale vaccination of school children and the general population who are not exposed to smallpox and may never be exposed to it in a lifetime. The absurdity and uselessness of vaccinating school children where no smallpox exists, and where there is no chance of being exposed to it, is proved by the short period of protection given by vaccination and now admitted by vaccinators; because the limited protec­tion given by vaccination at such a time, when not needed, would probably have expired by the time it was needed by the appearance of any epidemic or sporadic case, thus making the previous vaccination needless and another vaccination necessary. As a fresh vaccination, therefore, is the only thing that gives any sure protection, and this for a few months only, there is surely no use in vaccinating any children, on the vaccinators' own showing, until they are actually menaced by the presence of smallpox infection or epidemic.

To single out children of school age for this application of wholesale and compulsory vaccination, as is done under the present evil school vaccination law which has been originated and sustained by our medical societies, is particularly absurd, mischievous and unethical from a true medical, sanitary and hygienic standpoint; because it is a most extraordinary fact, which seems to be little known by the doctors or the laity, that children of school age have the greatest immunity from all disease and the lowest general death-rate of any part of the population, and to a most surprising degree, and are therefore in less need of the alleged protection of vaccination than any other part of the population!    Whereas it is generally falsely assumed that they are in most need of such protection.   This relative immunity and vitality is, however, so great that children of school age from 6 to 19 have only five per cent, of the total deaths from all causes, although they constitute about twenty-five per cent, of the whole population!   The children of school age have therefore about twelve times the immunity and vitality of the infant age under six years and about six times the vitality and immunity of all the rest of the population over nineteen!   See Report of the New York State Department of Health for 1912, page 125.   See also my pamphlet, "The Crime Against the School Child," 1915, pages 32-33.   This extraordinary fact  alone condemns all compulsory vaccination of school children as a most medically incongruous, barbarous and unnecessary practice.   But this evil creation of our medical societies will never be given up by our infallibilistic vaccinators until the common sense of the laity is firmly asserted to make all vaccination in schools or elsewhere free and voluntary and to demand the repeal of the evil compulsory vaccination law wherever it exists, which has probably killed three times more children than smallpox in the last ten or fifteen years.

At the outset I stated that I did not need to discuss the merits or demerits of vaccination in its alleged preventive or immunizing power against disease; and while these merits had been much exaggerated, yet, whatever they were, small or large, did not matter much, as the chief question was the danger of vac­cination to health and life. This was also the chief question with the evil predecessors of modern vaccination, viz., the old smallpox inoculation and Jenner's arm-to-arm vaccination, both of which were admitted to have some protective power against smallpox, yet both were finally condemned and prohibited by public opinion and penal law because they were found to be very dangerous to human health and life and actually caused more disease and death in the long run than they prevented.

I think I have already proved in the preceding pages, without any doubt, the serious dangers of modern bovine vaccination to human health and life, and that it now, in fact, often causes more deaths than smallpox, particularly in infants and school children, and has also been the cause of many dangerous epidemics among animals and mankind; and that for these capital reasons all compulsory vaccination should be absolutely abolished and prohibited, and voluntary vaccination only allowed.

In order, therefore, to show the meager or limited protective power of vaccination and its common, proved and admitted failure to protect from epidemic disease, I will now give several typical examples of this failure, both with the more common smallpox vaccination and the more recent typhoid vaccination, so as to complete this indictment against the medical malpractice of compulsory vaccination in all forms and leave nothing further which need be said on this subject in these pages to bring conviction to every reasonable mind that the barbarous medical scheme of compulsory disease is a very dangerous and fallacious mode of improving public health.

Example First. From Report of Registrar General of Eng­land for last great epidemic year of 1902:

Population of England and Wales... .            33,000,000
Total Deaths from Smallpox..............................     2464
Vaccinated Cases......................................              821
Unvaccinated Cases  ............................. .                791
Condition Not Stated............................. .                852

Surely there is no proof here that vaccination is much of a protection from smallpox, but rather the very reverse, because it is here shown that; the majority of fatal cases are vaccinated.

Example Second. During the last great smallpox epidemic in New York City in 1901 and 1902, the City Department of Health issued a printed circular to doctors, dated in 1902, which clearly acknowledged that the majority of all cases in this epidemic occurred in persons who had been successfully vaccinated a few years previously, and not in unvaccinated persons! This statement was signed by Dr. Ernst J. Lederle, Commissioner of Health, and Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, Chief Medical Officer, and was in part as follows:

"Experience in the recent outbreaks in New York City, contrary to the general opinion, has shown that the majority of the cases occurring here are not in unvaccinated persons, but in those who have been vaccinated successfully some years previously."

Dr. Lederle, who signed this statement, is now a manufacturer of vaccines and serums in New York City, and Dr. Biggs is now the Health Commissioner of the State of New York at Albany.

Example Third. Health Officer Raymond of Brooklyn stated in the Brooklyn Eagle of June 5, 1902, that in the epidemic in Brooklyn in 1902, in the first half of that year, there were 357 cases of smallpox and that 322 of these cases were all vaccinated and only 35 cases unvaccinated!

Surely these last two examples, right at our own doors, show that vaccination is little or no protection, or, to say the least, is a very poor protection, from smallpox, or has such a limited duration or period of protection that it fades out very rapidly and needs to be renewed and repeated frequently, with great possible danger to health and life, as already proved, and admitted by medical authorities previously quoted, so that this "cure" not only often fails but may become finally worse than the "disease."

Example Fourth. Smallpox in Germany, the best vaccinated country in Europe, as given in U. S. Public Health Report for January 23, 1914:

Record of Smallpox Cases and  Vaccinal Conditions for Three Years, 1908, 1909, 1910
Total cases..............................................................                      917
Vaccinated and re-vaccinated.................                  671
Unvaccinated  ..........................................                143
Unknown   ....................................................             28
Vaccinated unsuccessfully or too late . .                       75

Here we plainly see that in this much vaccinated country— the pride of vaccinators—the cases of smallpox among the well vaccinated and re-vaccinated were over four times the number of cases among the unvaccinated! Surely this example, with the two previous ones, clearly proves that vaccination is not very much of a protection! And surely there is nothing in these examples which any vaccinator can get much comfort from or use as a moral or medical justification of the shameful and evil practice of forcing compulsory vaccination upon the whole community under the shocking falsehood that it is the infallible and only protection against smallpox!    And surely these forceful and humiliating facts give a stinging rebuke to this false contention.

Example Fifth. The fully vaccinated U. S. battleship Ohio versus the unvaccinated City of Niagara Falls, N. Y.

A smallpox epidemic raged on this battleship at Guantanamo, Cuba, in December, 1913, and January, 1914, with these figures:

Population........................................ about    1000
Smallpox Cases................................................ 29
Deaths   ............................................................. 5

Per contra, an epidemic existed in Niagara Falls from 1912 to 1914, inclusive, as follows:

Population ................................................ 40,000
Total cases of Smallpox....................... 550
Deaths from Smallpox........................................ 1
Deaths from Vaccination...................................  3
Never vaccinated................................. 483
Vaccinated over five years.................... 26
Vaccinated for less than 5 years.............. 5
Not stated  .......................................... 36

Logical comparison of the vaccinated ship with the unvaccinated city, as follows:

The vaccinated ship had twenty-nine cases and five deaths per thousand population.

This same ratio of disease and death applied to the 40,000 population of Niagara Falls would call for 1160 cases and 200 deaths! Whereas the cases were actually only fourteen per thousand population and the deaths one fortieth of one person per thousand population, while the known deaths from vaccina­tion were three!

It is surely not difficult to decide here as to which makes the worst showing, the vaccinated ship or the unvaccinated city!

And while vaccinators are very fond of referring to this case of Niagara Falls as a great example of the virtue and need of vaccination, we think it must be obvious that the less they say of this case as compared with the vaccinated battleship Ohio, the better it will be for the cause of vaccination and the logic of the vaccinator. Here we see five deaths from smallpox in the well vaccinated battleship with 1,000 population, and one death from smallpox in the unvaccinated city of 40,000 population, which is a ratio of mortality, on basis of population, two hundred times greater in the well vaccinated battleship than in the unvaccinated city!

Besides this difference of smallpox cases and deaths in favor of the unvaccinated city, there were three deaths from vaccina­tion in the Niagara Falls population or three times more than the deaths from smallpox!

For some of these facts as to Niagara Falls see the Report of the New York State Department of Health for 1914, page 102. The three alleged deaths from vaccination are denied, as usual, by the health officials, but we have convincing evidence to prove them as most probably due to vaccination. These three fatal cases were: Miss Hull, school teacher, vaccinated when she was suffering from kidney disease; Bernard Moran, a very old man, vaccinated when he was suffering from heart disease; and John George Chambers, a strong man, killed by a clear case of acute blood poisoning or septicemia with complications im­mediately following the vaccination and extending from the vaccination sore.

Example Sixth. The flagrant failure of Typhoid Vaccination in the U. S. Army in England and France.

The following extracts are taken from the Report of the Chief Surgeon of the A. E. F., printed in U. S. Public Health Reports for March 28, 1919, entitled: "Typhoid Vaccination No Substitute for Sanitary Precautions." These extracts tell their story, most plainly and positively, as to the abject failure of typhoid vaccination to protect from disease where and when this protection is really needed, that is, where serious actual infection exists due to unsanitary conditions; and they also prove the necessity and superior value of sanitation as a protection from disease. I now quote these extracts verbatim as they appear in the official Report. They speak clearly for themselves and need no comment here to emphasize their great force and significance as a strong argument against compulsory vaccina­tion from the vaccinators themselves.

''In July, 1918, a replacement unit consisting of 248 men from Camp Cody, N. Mex., reached England with typhoid prevailing extensively; 98 men, or 39.5 per cent., had typhoid, and the case death-rate was 8.42 per cent.
"It was evident from the investigation that the men were exposed to infection through contaminated drinking water while en route to the port of embarkation in the United States. The unit had been vaccinated a few months prior to the occurrence of the epidemic. Most of the patients presented the typical clinical features of typhoid."
"In August, 1916, a small but severe epidemic occurred in a detachment of Engineer troops stationed at Bazoilles. In this unit fifteen cases of typhoid occurred, with a death-rate approximating ten per cent."
"Following the offensive in the Argonne sector, typhoid and paratyphoid began to be reported from practically all divisions engaged in that offensive. It is quite evident that the initial cases were due in large part to drinking infected water."
"More than 300 cases of typhoid-paratyphoid may be attributed to the Argonne offensive. Eight hundred and seventy-four typhoids and paratyphoids have been reported in the American Expeditionary Forces since October 1, 1918."
"A small but severe epidemic occurred in the Joinville concentration area in December and January. In a group of Medical Department units (evacuation and mobile hospitals and sanitary trains) concentrated there seventy-five cases occurred, with a case death-rate of approximately twenty per cent."
    "The records of this office show that patients with typhoid have passed successively through camp, field, evacuation, and base hospitals without any documentary evidence that typhoid or paratyphoid was even suspected. There are records of a stay of two weeks or more in a single base hospital without diagnosis, and not a few records are on file showing that it remained for the pathologist to make the diagnosis at the autopsy table/'
    "The vaccinated individual protected against general systemic infection may still act as a carrier of typhoid infection, and frequently shows clinical manifestations of local disease of Some portion of the gastrointestinal tract, while the characteristic symptom complex of typhoid fever due to gen­eral infection, namely, continued fever, rose spots, and enlarged spleen, may be wholly absent."
"Many cases originally diagnosed as influenza in the American Expeditionary Forces have subsequently proven to be typhoid."
"Intestinal types of supposed influenza should always be considered as possible typhoid until proven otherwise."
"The frequency with which atypical, mild, unrecognized cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fever has occurred in the American Expeditionary Forces among vaccinated men makes it absolutely essential to surround all such cases of undetermined fever with the same precautions which it is found necessary to apply to established typhoid or paratyphoid patients, to avoid contact infections in the wards among other patients and hospital personnel."
"Several protocols have been received in which the com­plete pathological and bacteriological pictures of typhoid fever were recorded but the cause of death was entered as 'peritonitis,' 'perforation of the intestine,' 'broncho-pneu­monia/ 'acute enterocolitis.' "
"Typhoid fever is increasing in the American Expedition­ary Forces—so are the paratyphoid fevers."
"Vaccination is a partial protection only and must be reinforced by sanitary measures."

It will be noted that not only does the above official Report contain a frank, full, and free admission of the outright and inexcusable failure of typhoid vaccination to protect from typhoid fever where it is most needed, viz., where "sanitary precautions" do not exist, but it also clearly shows some other serious evils which I have repeatedly charged to the practice of compulsory vaccination, viz., it shows how frequently false diagnoses are made of vaccinated cases, either wilfully or inadvertently, so as to conceal the actual occurrence of typhoid fever in vaccinated men and report it as some other disease, such as "Influenza," etc., and thus conceal the failures of vaccination. It also shows that many cases of death from typhoid fever in vaccinated men are reported as not due to this disease but to some of its terminals or complications such as "Peritonitis," "Broncho-Pneumonia," "Enterocolitis," etc. By these mistaken, or wilfully false, reports, the failures, dangers and fatalities of vaccination are often concealed and denied, thus verifying my charge of serious medical falsification in these matters, which I have openly and publicly stated for years past and challenged denial of disproof.

Example Seventh. Failure of Typhoid Vaccination in the U. S. Army in America.

In the Journal of the American Medical Association for February 15, 1919, there is a report of a bad epidemic of Typhoid Fever which occurred among the vaccinated men in Camp Greene, Charlotte, North Carolina, in June, 1918. In this case infection is reported to have come from ice cream which the men had eaten, and the rather pitiable and ridiculous excuse is given for the failure of the vaccination in this case, that the infection in the ice cream was so virulent or in such "massive doses" that the protective power of the vaccination was not suf­ficient to overcome such "massive" infection, and hence the vaccination failed to protect the men and they succumbed to the disease, notwithstanding their extensive and repeated vaccination ! This is, of course, another and equally positive admission of the failure of typhoid vaccination, but, unlike the previous example, it is a rather ridiculous or farcical admission, as it at tempts to excuse the failure by saying that the "doses" of infection in the ice cream were so "massive" that the vaccination was overpowered and could not be expected to overcome such odds! In other words, vaccination will protect you where there is no dangerous or serious infection to be guarded against, but will fail where any serious or "massive" doses of infection are present! This is equivalent to saying that vaccination is a good policeman for any town where there are no lawbreakers and no disorder, but is no good where there is any serious crime, violence or danger. Vaccination, we are thus told, is a good bullet­proof armor provided you shoot only pop-guns against it, but it is no good to resist real pistol or rifle balls! This is just about what opponents of compulsory vaccination have been contend­ing for years, and this is therefore one of the chief reasons why we now contend that no such ineffective, unreliable and dangerous remedy should be forced on any person, child or adult, against free will and consent.

To sum up briefly, I think it may now be seen that our several cardinal points against the evils of Compulsory Vaccination have been proved by impregnable legal, medical and historical facts and out of the mouth of high authorities on vaccination. These cardinal points may be stated in seven numbers as follows :

First: The illegality and unconstitutionally of all compulsory vaccination and its gross violation of Medical Freedom and Bodily Sanctity, which are unalieoable American rights equal with Religious Freedom,

Second: The medical barbarism and malpractice of all compulsory medicine and compulsory  disease as being opposed to all true standards of medical ethics and logic,

Third: The poor protective power of vaccination, which gives no immunity from smallpox except for short periods of a few months or a year and requires frequent repetition, which is obviously  ineffective as a protection and dangerous as a remedy.

Fourth : That sanitation, isolation and hygiene have been and are the chief means of preventing and suppressing smallpox epidemics independent of vaccination.

Fifth: That vaccination is very dangerous to health and life, causes epidemics in animals and mankind and is oftentimes more fatal than smallpox and now causes more deaths than smallpox.

Sixth: That vaccinating doctors and health officials most shamefully deny and conceal injuries and deaths from vaccination and falsify our vital statistics accordingly.

Seventh : That the practice of inflicting on the human body a compulsory medical disease, which is dangerous to health and life and causes many deaths every year, is obviously illegal and a medical crime on the people which must be suppressed.

As soon, therefore, as this crushing fact of the great danger of vaccination to human health and life enters the mind and conscience of the mass of the people, and is fully grasped by the legislative, the judicial and the executive minds of the country —from whom it has been so long concealed by medical false­hood in high places—this enlightenment will, I firmly believe, result in the permanent abolishment of all compulsory vaccination, if not in the penal prohibition of general vaccination, as being now more dangerous than natural smallpox; and to that great fact and to this final and prophetic thought, Mr. Presi­dent, I ask your careful attention in closing this exposure of vaccination horrors and medical mendacities.

Respectfully submitted,
Chas. M. Higgins

Dated at 271 Ninth St., Brooklyn, N. Y., U. S. Constitution Day, September 17, 1919.