2 – Phenoxyethanol
Havrix (Hep A) SmithKline Beecham
IPOLŪ Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated
TETRAVACŪ Suspension for i.m. (intramuscular?)
Injection - Used only in Germany.
Pentacel (5 in 1)
Thomas Vogt, Michael Landthaler and Wilhelm Stolz. 1998 Generalized eczema in an 18-month-old boy due to phenoxyethanol in DPT vaccine
Bohn S, Bircher AJ. Phenoxyethanol-induced urticaria. Allergy. 2001 Sep;56(9):922-3. No abstract available.PMID: 11551266 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Schmuck G, Steffens W, Bomhard E. 2-Phenoxyethanol: a neurotoxicant? Arch Toxicol. 2000 Jul;74(4-5):281-7. No abstract available.PMID: 10959804 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
U, Madeja M, Binding N, Witting U, Speckmann EJ. Effects of
2-phenoxyethanol on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated ion currents. Arch Toxicol. 1999 Feb;73(1):55-9.PMID: 10207615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The actions were examined of 17 frequently used glycol ether compounds on the glutamate receptor-mediated ion currents. The receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of rat brain mRNA. Most of the 17 glycol ethers exerted no effects on the glutamate subreceptors activated by kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), whereas 2-phenoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monophenyl ether) caused a considerable reduction of NMDA-induced membrane currents in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. The threshold concentration of the ethylene glycol monophenyl ether effect was < 10 mumol/l. The concentration for a 50% inhibition (IC50) was approximately 360 mumol/l. The results indicate a neurotoxic potential for 2-phenoxyethanol.
WE. Occupational phenoxyethanol neurotoxicity: a report of three
cases.J Occup Med. 1990 Jan;32(1):42-5.PMID: 2324842
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2-Phenoxyethanol, used as an anesthetic for handling small fish at a salmon hatchery, caused three women to experience headache and symptoms of intoxication during use, followed by diminished sensation and strength of hands and fingers, worse in the preferred hand. Persistent neuropathy did not develop in any of them. After 1 to 2 years of exposure, the women manifested gradual onset of symptoms of cognitive impairment with an inability to work. Neuropsychologic testing verified that all three had focal cognitive impairments that persisted. One also had documented labyrinthine hypofunction, which originated during this exposure. The immediate and delayed effects of 2-phenoxyethanol on the central nervous system resemble those of the other organic solvents.
G. Schmuck, W. Steffens, E. Bomhard 2-Phenoxyethanol: a neurotoxicant? Arch Toxicol (2000) 74: 281283
U. MuBhoff, M. Madeja, N. Binding, U. Witting, E.-J.
Speckmann. 2-Phenoxyethanol: a neurotoxicant? Reply. Arch Toxicol (2000) 74: 284-287
Reply. Arch Toxicol (2000) 74: 284-287
In summary, we found an antagonistic effect of 2-phenoxyethanol on the NMDA responses in voltage-clamp experiments with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Since most of the NMDA antagonists exert profound neurobehavioural and neurotoxic effects, we discussed the possibility that 2-phenoxyethanol also possesses a neurotoxic potential, a conclusion which certainly is fully justified when considering all our and other published data.
Ulrich Mubhoff, Michael Madeja, Norbert Binding, Ute Witting, Erwin-Josef, Speckmann. Arch Toxicol (1999) 73: 55-59 Effects of 2-phenoxyethanol on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated ion currents
Government Transcript of the 8/12/99 Workshop on Thimerosol Vaccines
Quote from Dr. Mary Teeling, Medical Director of the Ireland Medicines Board, during the above workshop:
Perhaps I'm getting old and a bit cynical, but I'm really not sure that we
have the full safety picture on 2-phenoxyethanol. It certainly does look to be a safe and
efficacious vaccine -- preservative, but we're actually not 100 percent sure about either
of these at this point in time. Formaldehyde has also been used. Now, there are other
preservatives that have been used in other medicinal products, like benzochromium
chloride. I think the important thing is that for a preservative to be used, they must
fulfill the European Pharmacopeia specifications. That's a requirement in order to get a
license either nationally or at community level in the European Union. So they do have --
So they will, more or less, fulfill the PH Euro requirements. But we're not really -
Ever how much information we have on thimerosal, I think we have less on the others. So you're into a situation, or are you -- You know the phrase, "The devil you know is better than the devil you don't know." And I think that's a very important aspect of this whole review.
Source for much of the above http://www.childscreen.org/2PE.htm