Vaccine contamination citations
Citations  Vaccine contamination
avian leukosis virus


Brown F.   Review of accidents caused by incomplete inactivation of viruses. Dev Biol Stand. 1993;81:103-7. Review. PMID: 8174792; UI: 94229363.    
Geier MR, et al.    Endotoxins in commercial vaccines. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1978 Sep;36(3):445-9. PMID: 727776; UI: 79081366.     

Tsang SX, Switzer WM, Shanmugam V, Johnson JA, Goldsmith C, Wright A, Fadly A, Thea D, Jaffe H, Folks TM, Heneine W HIV and Retrovirology Branch, Division of AIDS, STD, and TB Laboratory Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. J Virol 1999 Jul;73(7):5843-51 Evidence of avian leukosis virus subgroup E and endogenous avian virus in measles and mumps vaccines derived from chicken cells: investigation of transmission to vaccine recipients.

[Search for contaminant viruses in small pox vaccines] (Netter R; Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris), 1965 Sep)


Harris RJ, Dougherty RM, Biggs PM, Payne LN, Goffe AP, Churchill AE, Mortimer R. Contaminant viruses in two live virus vaccines produced in chick cells. J Hyg (Lond) 1966 Mar;64(1):1-7. PMID 4286627.

Maudru T, Peden KW. Analysis of a coded panel of licensed vaccines by polymerase chain reaction-based reverse transcriptase assays: a collaborative study. J Clin Virol 1998 Jul 24;11(1):19-28. PMID 9784140.

Geier MR, Stanbro H, Merril CR. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines. Appl Environ Microbiol 1978 Sep;36(3):445-9. PMID 727776.

Fumarola D, Panaro A, Palma R, Mazzone A. Endotoxic contamination of biological products (ribosomal vaccines, viral vaccines and interferon). G Batteriol Virol Immunol 1979 Jan-Jun;72(1-6):72-7. PMID 95449.

Cussler K, Godau H, Gyra H. Investigation of the endotoxin content of veterinary vaccines. ALTEX 1994;11(5):24-29. PMID 11178403.

Cell Culture Contamination Example. Mycoplasma.

73. Mattman LH, 2001. Cell wall deficient forms: stealth pathogens (3rd ed.). CRC Press.

74. Uphoff CC, Drexler HG. Prevention of mycoplasma contamination in leukemia-lymphoma cell lines. Hum Cell 2001 Sep;14(3):244-7. PMID 11774744.

80. Nicolson GL, Nass M, Nicolson N. Anthrax vaccine: controversy over safety and efficacy. Antimicrobics and Infectious Disease Newsletter (Elsevier Science) 2000. Article located at

81. Thornton DH. A survey of mycoplasma detection in veterinary vaccines. Vaccine 1986 Dec;4(4):237-40. PMID 3799018.

82. Kong F, James G, Gordon S, Zelynski A, Gilbert GL. Species-specific PCR for identification of common contaminant mollicutes in cell culture. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001 Jul;67(7):3195-200. PMID 11425741.

Mycoplasma testing by PCR.

Mycoplasma sp. Reagent Set.

Macomber PB. Cancer and cell wall deficient bacteria. Med Hypotheses 1990 May;32(1):1-9. PMID 2190063.

Baseman JB, Tully JG. Mycoplasmas: sophisticated, reemerging, and burdened by their notoriety. Emerg Infect Dis 1997 Jan-Mar;3(1):21-32. PMID 9126441. Full text article available at

Gartler SM. Apparent Hela cell contamination of human heteroploid cell lines. Nature 1968 Feb 24;217(5130):750-1. PMID 5641128.

Lavappa KS. Survey of ATCC stocks of human cell lines for HeLa contamination. In Vitro 1978 May;14(5):469-75. PMID 566722.

Nelson-Rees WA, Daniels DW, Flandermeyer RR. Cross-contamination of cells in culture. Science 1981 Apr 24;212(4493):446-52. PMID 6451928.

Demidova SA, Tsareva AA, Mikhailova GR, Perekrest VV, Gushchin BV. Several methodologic problems in the control of cell cultures. Vopr Virusol 1976 May-Jun;(3):371-9. PMID 983006.

MacLeod RA, Dirks WG, Matsuo Y, Kaufmann M, Milch H, Drexler HG. Widespread intraspecies cross-contamination of human tumor cell lines arising at source. Int J Cancer 1999 Nov 12;83(4):555-63. PMID 10508494.

Stacey GN. Cell contamination leads to inaccurate data: we must take action now. Nature 2000 Jan 27;403(6768):356. PMID 10667765.

Monath TP, Cropp CB, Harrison AK. Mode of entry of a neurotropic arbovirus into the central nervous system. Reinvestigation of an old controversy. Lab Invest 1983 Apr;48(4):399-410. PMID 6300550.

Hoffman PN, Abuknesha RA, Andrews NJ, Samuel D, Lloyd JS. A model to assess the infection potential of jet injectors used in mass immunisation. Vaccine 2001 Jul 16;19(28-29):4020-7. PMID 11427278.

Garnick RL. Raw materials as a source of contamination in large-scale cell culture. Dev Biol Stand 1998;93:21-9. PMID 9737373.

Fadly AM, Smith EJ. Isolation and some characteristics of a subgroup J-like avian leukosis virus associated with myeloid leukosis in meat-type chickens in the United States. Avian Dis 1999 Jul-Sep;43(3):391-400. PMID 10494407.

Pham TD, Spencer JL, Johnson ES. Detection of avian leukosis virus in albumen of chicken eggs using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 1999 Mar;78(1-2):1-11. PMID 10204692.